Bowlby has the idea that attachment has evolved and it is innate as it increases the likelihood of survival and reproduction, he suggests that children are already born with this innate drive and that they were born to perform these behaviours and born to attain attachment. To enhance the survival of their offspring caregiving is also adaptive and we are born to care for our children. He suggests that infants were born with social releasers such as crying and smiling which encourage caregiving. Bowlby also suggests that there is a best time to form an attachment, this is called the sensitive period where infants are most sensitive to development of attachments and Bowlby would suggest that this is when the child is 3-6 months old. However, attachment can still take place at other times but it becomes increasingly difficult.
His theory proposed that attachment was important for survival, since infants are physically helpless and need an adult to feed, care and protect them. Bowlby’s theory can be broken down into five key points. Firstly Bowlby defined attachments as adaptive, meaning that they give humans an ‘adaptive advantage’ making us more likely to survive and reproduce. This is because if an infant has an
It is a lasting psychological connectedness between human beings as described by a psychologist named John Bowlby. Attachment also is a learned ability where emotional connections between a parent and child are nurtured over time through mutual interaction, and is based on trust. Characteristics of attachment are the following: "Safe Haven" is when a child feels afraid or threatened in any matter, they will return to the caregiver for comfort and soothing. The second characteristic is "secure base". Secure Base is when a caregiver provides a dependable and secure base for the child to explore the world.
Bowlby believed that a mother has similar genetic coding that allows her to react instinctive to, and respond to her infants needs. Bowlby stated that the first attachment formed is the most important and he believed this should be the mother. He called this “monotrophy”. This attachment must be formed within a “critical period” in the infant’s early life for it to be effective. This first attachment is imperative to enable the child to go on and form other attachments and develop socially and emotionally.
Outline and evaluate Bowlby’s theory of attachment (12 marks) Bowlby believed that the strong, emotional, reciprocal bong between an infant and its caregiver which is formed over time is part of an evolutionary behaviour and that human babies have an innate tendency to establish this bond with their caregiver which aids survival and reproductive potential. In his theory, Bowlby applied the principles of imprinting to human attachment but instead used the term attachment as this process in humans is much more complex and more of a social and emotional bond than imprinting. One of Bowlby’s main evolutionary ideas amongst his theory’s is that babies possess innate characteristics that encourage the caregiver to look after them which he called social releasing factors. This included things such as big eyes, little noses, rosebud mouths, crying and smiling which encourage the caregiver to look after them and according to Bowlby, mothers especially possess instincts designed to protect their baby from harm and to nurture them to ensure survival to reach maturity. Another important evolutionary concept in Bowlby’s theory was the idea of monotropy where infants form an attachment to one primary caregiver which is usually the biological mother.
Outline and Evaluate John Bowlbys evolutionary theory of attachment John Bowlby’s evolutionary theory was proposed in 1953 and suggests that children come into the world biologically pre-programmed, to form attachments with others, because, this will help them to survive and reproduce. Whereas, failure to form attachments could lead to serious long term consequences for the child. The reason as to why Bowlby’s theory is evolutionary is because, in his view, attachment is a behavioural system that has evolved due to its survival value. There are a variety of main points suggested by Bowlby which make this theory so vital. Firstly, he imposed that the attachments are innate; i.e.
Although Adler’s work on this concept has received a great amount of support over the years, many claim that there are visible weaknesses that prove his theory to be contradicting and inconsistent. Introduction In this paper I will discuss Alfred Adler’s birth order theory and focus on the personality differences that exist between the first and second born children within the family. First, I will provide a brief outline of Alfred Adler’s theory around the concept of birth order in the family constellation. I will provide an individual analysis of the differences Adler and his supporters argue existing between these two positions, and how their personality characteristics differ socially within the family. Also, I will compare the strong and weak characteristics of both the first and second sibling’s position.
Infants in biologically organize their attachment behaviors around the availability of their caregivers. When infants find caregivers to be available in times of need, they tend to develop expectations that caregivers will be there in the future of times needed in the future. Behaviorally, these infants then seek out the comfort they need (Sroufe, 1989) from caregivers with confident expectations that they will be soothed. Such infants are categorized as having secure attachments to caregivers. When caregivers are not responsive to infants’ needs or there are many different caregivers in an infants’ life, infants can develop an insecurity to bond because they cannot identify who the main caregiver is supposed
Ainsworth explored her “Strange Situation” study. Her study involved observing children between the ages of 12 to 18 months responded to being briefly left alone and then were reunited with their parent. Based on these observations, Ainsworth concluded that there were three major styles of attachment: secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment. I like the attachment theory. Why?
Introduction This essay discusses the ways in which knowledge and understanding of theories of child development help social workers to promote and safeguard the welfare of children. The essay focuses on the theory of attachment and the development of social relationships between children and their caregivers and its application to the very early child development. The attachment theory has been chosen from others because is a highly influential theory and familiarity with its chief tenets, applications and criticisms of the theory is essential for social workers. The essay starts by briefly describing the theory of attachment. It highlights the important concepts of the theory, its chief tenets and its application during the early childhood relationships.