This attachment helps the infant to form an internal working model which is a schema for all future relationships. An advantage of this is that there is supporting evidence for this theory of attachment. One such piece of evidence is Lorenz who found that baby geese will imprint on the first person they see, even if they are not of the same species. This supports the idea of both imprinting and the critical period and emphasises how attachments are most likely formed for survival purposes. This means that this theory is much more valid and so can be applied to real life situations such as ensuring that a baby is immediately given to the mother after birth to ensure that they become attached.
2.3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice. Theories of development and frameworks to support development are incredibly important to us when working with children. They help us to understand children, how they react to things, situations, their behaviour and the way they learn. Different theories and ways of working with children have come together to provide frameworks for children’s care, such as Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) which is used within all child care settings. This encourages us to work together, help and check the development of babies, children and young people, to keep them healthy and safe.
Behavioural and Evolutionary theories of attachment in Psychology are two opposing ideas about the ways in which a child attaches to it's primary caregiver. In this essay I will demonstrate the differences between the two theories and use case studies to provide evidence for both the Behavioural and Evolutionary theories. The Evolutionary theory supports the Nature side of the argument, which basically suggests that attachment is something which is biologically pre-programmed into a child at birth. This means that an infant will emit something which is known as a 'social releaser' (e.g crying, smiling, laughing) because they know an adult will respond. However, the Behavioural theory is part of the Nurture debate, which suggests that attachment is a set of learned behaviours from the environment and is not something that a child is born with.
The Every Child Matters (ECM) agenda is, as argued by Walker (2008), the most radical programme of change yet seen, aimed at improving the outcomes for all children and families. Consequently, ECM prompted a significant move towards a joined up work force reform. In this paper, I will examine the concept of the ‘multi-agency team’ and the roles, responsibilities and dilemmas faced by the professionals working within it. Through critical analysis, I will discuss the collaboration between agencies: looking at legislation and policies that the government has put into place to drive this and reflect on the benefits of multi-agency working as well as the possible challenges and barriers. The intention of this assignment is to explore the roles and responsibilities of professional agencies working with children and their families.
How Important Is an Understanding of the Client’s Early Attachment Experience to the Psychodynamic Practice of Counselling Psychology? By Stacey Tobin Word Count -  Introduction: The purpose of this essay is to critically evaluate Larson’s (2012) views of attachment in relation to psychodynamic practice and counselling. Attachment theory has become widely regarded as the most important and supported framework for understanding social and emotional development (Goldberg 2000). Throughout the assignment I will attempt to provide evidence that suggests that attachment based interventions help allow for a greater understanding, sensitive response and more effective use of practitioners skills (Kennedy and Kennedy 2004) Winnicott (1967) both placed great emphasis on “holding the child” to help the child feel secure, allowing the child autonomy at their own pace. Klein’s (1984) theory of primitive object relation, postulated the reason an infant develops close ties to his mother is because she is the source of food, referred to as “cupboard love theory”.
Linking theory with practice enables practitioners to plan age appropriate activities and experiences for the children in their care and thus enhance their development and help them to acquire new skills and knowledge. In this essay the author will discuss the following theorists whose work has been very influential in the field of childcare. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Lev Vygotsky (1896-1943), Jean Piaget (1896-1980), B.F. Skinner (1904-1990). Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Sigmund Freud’s main area of study was emotional and personality development, he was the first psychologist to recognise the importance of the conscious and unconscious mind. Freud’s work is considered important because he showed that childhood experiences and relationships significantly influence the development of personality in later life, (Beaver et al 2002).
How do agents of socialisation influence gender identities in children? We are all the products of socialisation, the way that we behave and everything that we do is a model of what society wants. This process of moulding begins from birth and it is our parents, being the primary agent of socialisation, that influence us the most. However, other agents such as education, media etc. all have a great part to play as well.
Are perceptual abilities innate? When considering the above question, it is important to first take account of the much wider nature vs. nature debate that surrounds the subject of perception in developmental psychology. Psychologists who advocate the nature side of the debate are known as nativists and they believe that perceptual abilities are present from birth and are genetically inherited through an entirely innate process. Conversely, empiricist psychologists believe that perception develops due to the effects of nurture and argue that infants are born a ‘blank slate’ with abilities developing as a result of increasingly gained experience (Smith, Cowie and Blades, 2003, pg 319). Due to substantial evidence from a number of different experiments supporting the nativist view on areas such as infant perception of depth, size constancy and pattern and face recognition, I believe that perceptual abilities are predominantly innate.
“Truly there is an urgent need today of reforming the methods of instruction and education and he who aims at such a renewal is struggling for the regeneration of mankind. ” (Montessori M., The Discovery of the Child, Chapter 1, p.18) However, she believed that the current system of education was the core of the problems mankind faced. Having successfully aided the mentally challenged children, she begun to test her teaching methods on normal children and eventually conceptualising an educational program based on her scientific research and observations. Hence begun the evolution of a “New Education” philosophy,
Thus, she reformed the education system by creating a whole new method of education for the new generation. ”Truly there is an urgent need today of reforming the methods of instruction and education and he who aims at such a renewal is struggling for the next generation of mankind” (The discovery of the child, Topic 1, p.10) Dr. Montessori believed that education should be taught to children naturally and spontaneously. She felt that the current education system is very teacher-centered approach rather than child-centered approach. If the education is to be reformed, it has to be child-centered approach; meaning the education is focused on the child and gives importance to the child. She wanted children to have the freedom to explore their surroundings and to learn, imitate, make choices, connections and communicate.