Scientific Study of Personality Paper Aldonza Gonzalez PSYCH 504/Personality Theories 1/21/13 Tracy Masiello Scientific Study of Personality Paper In defining who we are, there needs to be an understanding of our personality. With different kind of personality types, classifying an individual into a single type of personality can be difficult. Further, individuals have many different types of personality traits like possessed behavior, actions, and attitudes. This paper will explore the definition of personalities from an individual and psychological point of view. Three methods of research in studying personality will be explored that includes case studies, correlational designs, and experimental designs or true experiments.
The Iindividual Psychology theory which emphasizes the unique potential of each individual was develop by theorist Alfred Adler, Nevid, J. S. (2013). 3. Give a brief explanation of one of the Trait Perspectives including the theorist and key concepts. Five- Factor Model (FFM) The dominant con-temporary trait model of personality, consisting of five broad personality factors: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, Nevid, J. S. (2013). a) Extraversion: This trait includes characteristics such as excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness and high amounts of emotional expressiveness.
In the study of psychology there are six perspectives which each interpret there own idea of the study of psychology and how behaviour is performed as a result. At the start of psychology it is explained that each perspective’s idea of behaviour is mainly based on a set of beliefs or ideas. The six perspectives are: •Behaviourist •Psychodynamic •Cognitive •Humanistic •Biological •Social learning The Behaviourist Perspective. The first perspective is the behaviourist perspective which looks at the idea of all behaviour being learnt, the perspective says that behaviour could be learnt through two different processes, these processes are operant and classical conditioning. The two main psychologists involved in the behaviourist approach to psychology were, Ivan Pavlov who studied classical conditioning and Frederic Skinner who looked at operant conditioning.
Throughout this paper we will further explore some of the differences between these two systems of psychology. Structuralism was introduced in the United States by E. B. Titchener who studied under Wilhelm Wundt. Titchener suggested that his approach was that of Wundt, however, what he was teaching was very different and the term structuralism can only be linked to Titchener’s teachings. Titchener was interested in the basic elements of the conscious experience and how those elements are organized (Lahey, 2004). He believed psychology’s main objective was to explore the conscious experience by studying each component part in an effort to discover its structure.
However, it can be said that personality is a sequence of permanent traits, dispositions, motives, and characteristics within an individual, and these traits shape the person’s behavior.(J. Feist & G. J. Feist, 1998). As was mentioned earlier, different theorists interpret the meaning of personality in variety ways, thus, there exist several approaches to understanding human personality or human nature or soul. Generally, there are psychodynamic, behavioral, and phenomenological theories in psychology of personality. In this paper, I will try to provide a concise but clear information about psychodynamic approaches and their theorists in explaining the human nature.
Psychologist differ from these attempts in their use of the scientific method, using both clinical and experimental studies to evaluate the construct of personality. There have been multiple theories to come out of this research. Some such as Sheldon's Constitutional Theory(Sheldon,1940), which hypothesised a link between body type and personality, are no longer in vogue. Others such as Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986) have a high heuristic value and are still used in therapy today. This essay will use two of these theories to offer a psychological interpretation of a fictional character and by doing so evaluate the merit of the hypotheses.
There are many different constructions and theories on personality which all have their own strengths and weaknesses and all of which try to offer an explanation to the differences in people’s behaviour. This essay will look at Hans Eysenck’s Trait Theory (1965) which is interested in measuring people’s personality through traits. According to this perspective, traits are stable over time and differ between individuals. We will also look at George Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory (1955.) He believed that people develop constructs as internal ideas of reality to help them understand the world around them and that the way the world is viewed is based on individual experiences, interpretations and observations.
A comparison of the Rorschach and Myers-Briggs Assessments submitted to: Dr. Lu Ezekanaga PY525 Abstract This paper was designed to evaluate two different assessments used in the process of personality assessment. The assessments that will be compared and contrasted in this paper are the Myers-Brigg and the Rorschach. Both tests have been used widely in the field of personality assessment. However, there are some positives and negatives to using one assessment over the other depending on what aspect of personality is being assessed. This paper will discuss the beneficial and non-beneficial aspects of both assessments.
In our matrix we will discuss Allport’s psychology of the individual theory, and the trait and factor theory. Both theories express how personality can change personalities and, the different associations that we have over time. Allport’s theory, psychology of the individual, sees human personality different from psychoanalytical and behavioral views. Allport believed that individual’s personality and behavior were not only determined by experiences stored in the unconscious but also by conscious decisions made in the present (Feist & Feist, 2009). Allport also believed that humans are not only organisms that react to rewards and punishment instead humans can interact with the environment and vice versa (Feist & Feist, 2009).
Psychology is the scientific observation and analysis of the pattern between, the human mind and its functions to determine behaviour, which helps in gaining empirical evidence that can be useful to everyday life and its individuals (American Psychological Association 2013). However, a question that arises in the following debate is how can psychologists study the mind and mental processes? And how and whether the mind is a separate component from the body? Findings show evidence that the body and mind can work in sync together and have an influence on each other (Descartes, 1961). For instance, when we considered an individual suffering from anxiety; which targets a person psychologically, we can see how this can also can reflect in the physical being, such as losing weight long-term or lack of breath when having an anxiety attack.