The reason for this will be highlighted throughout the essay: making it important to analyse the basic concepts of the model and understand how the principles and theories of psychodynamic counselling relates to other counselling models. It is also important to identify why this particular model’s attributes would suit me as a potential client. There are several branches of Psychodynamic approach such as; Ego Psychology, which tends to focus on enhancing and maintaining the client’s ego function in accordance with the demands of reality: Object Relations psychology identifies how people are shaped in relation to the people around them, again this focusses on relationships children have throughout their developmental stages: Self Psychology observes that a person encounters problems when they lack self-esteem, and that subsequently effects their relationships (Gross, 2010). A key principle of a Psychodynamic counsellor is that people tend to have bad relationships because they repeat destructive patterns from their past. Clients will transfer feelings from the past onto new people in their lives and therefore repeat the pattern over and over again.
The aim of trait theory is to produce general principles of why people behave differently in different situations. Questionnaires, for example Eysenck’s Personality Inventory (EPI), are used to produce psychometric inventories, which are a measure of personality traits. This is a scientific approach, facilitating prediction of how a particular person will react in a specific situation. Other trait theorists (e.g. Kant) considered traits to be categorical.
One’s personality, behavior, characteristics, and traits are what makes individual’s unique. Developmental process of personality occurs through life, one’s experiences, one’s environmental conditions, heredity, and one’s behavior has a huge impact on one’s personality. Personality and behavior is hidden in the unconscious minds, and exposed because of unconscious drives. Humanistic and Existential Personalities The essentials for humanistic and existential personality theories come from philosophical bases (Feist & Feist, 2009), explaining the
Integrative approach focuses on both personal dispositions and situational variables as combined predictors of behavior. Integrative approach helps us look at personality by not only showing how a person perceives themselves, but also how others perceive them. 4. Describe the eight preferences of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. How does this instrument measure Carl Jung's ideas?
Evaluate the extent to which Freud’s theory of psychosexual development can help us to understand a client’s presenting issues A psychodynamic approach is one which tries to explain what drives or motivates development. Many psychological explanations aim to identify what causes behaviour, but this approach looks at the dynamics of the cause. The best known psychodynamic approach is Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. He suggested that we are driven to satisfy biological urges and these motives cause us to interact with our environment in certain ways. This means early experiences play a critical role in our lives.
Confirmation biasThe tendency to attend to evidence that complements and confirms our beliefs or expectations, while ignoring evidence that does not.StructuralismA historical school of psychology devoted to uncovering the basic structures that make up mind and thought. Structuralists sought the "elements" of conscious experienceIntrospectionthe process of reporting on one's own conscious mental experienceFunctionalismA historical school of psychology that believed mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose and function. Gestalt psychologyA historical school of psychology that sought to understand how the brain works by studying perception and perceptual learning. Gestalt psychologists believed that percepts consist of meaningful wholes.BehaviorismA historical school (as well as a modern perspective) that has sought to make psychology an objective science that focused only on behavior - to the exclusion of mental processes.PsychoanalysisAn approach to psychology based on Sigmund Freud's assertions, which emphasize unconscious processes. Biological viewThe psychological perspective that searches for the causes of behavior in the functioning of genes, the brain and nervous system, and the endocrine (hormone) system.
He also linked some childhood desires with the development of ones personality. The psychoanalytic theory is founded on the basis that there are inner forces that influence ones behavior unconsciously. This theory was developed after a thorough observation of people’s behavior where Sigmund conducted case studies. Feud argued that human mind can be divided three parts; the conscious mind, the preconscious mind and the unconscious mind. According to Asch M (2004), the conscious mind includes the things that we are aware of.
REALITY THERAPY As the field of psychology evolved in the twentieth century, theorists examined the possibility of feelings, emotions and thoughts influencing an individual’s behaviour, and as a result a number of alternative approaches to therapy evolved. Behavioural theorists asserted that a person is the “producer and the product of his or her environment” (Corey, 2009, p. 237), whilst cognitive therapy incorporated the effect of the client’s belief systems and thinking in determining behaviour and emotional responses. Classic behavioural models were eventually greatly affected by cognitive psychology, and cognitive schools took on behavioural components, resulting in a merged cognitive behavioural method of approach. In its practical, directive and thought based approach, Reality therapy, based on research by William Glasser in the 1950’s, conforms to the cognitive behavioural school of thought and will be illustrated in this essay. Theory and techniques will be applied through the window of the case study of John, in an effort to demonstrate the effectiveness of this model in strengthening an individual’s internal sense of control, thereby changing behaviour.
Personality Analysis Paper Jessica Ogunlanoh Psych/ 405 03/28/11 Linda O’ Conner Personality Analysis Paper 1 Various personality theories provide different explanations how situational behavior becomes affected by personality. The two theories to be addressed in this paper are the humanistic/existential and dispositional theories. The humanistic/existential perspective considers the entire person when trying to explain the development of personality and acknowledges the potential within each individual when doing so. On the other hand, the dispositional perspective pays close attention to his or her traits when describing the development of personality, which according to this view are the building blocks of one’s personality. To understand more clearly the differences between the humanistic/existential and dispositional theories, the writer will compare and contrast them.
Personality Analysis Jan George 1 Oct 2012 PSY/405 University of Phoenix Dr. Wakley Personality Analysis Introduction When analyzing the development on how the research of the Psychologists theories on the reaction that was analyzed of the psychology of the individual and the trait and factor theories. However, the theory of the assumptions of the Psychologist approach concerning the behavior of a person’s personalities is examined with understanding of the conscious motivation, the characteristics, the factor analysis, and personality traits. In addition to the behavioral analysis, and social cognitive learning. This paper will analyze and compare and contrast of both theories dispositional and learning theory. As well as “describe the role of personality in affecting situational behavior and examine the personality quality associate with as well as describe the interpersonal relational aspects associated with the two of the theoretical approaches” of first the dispositional and second the learning.