They are genuine feelings based on the self's interactions with the environment and the people in it, at different points in time. Freud, in his psychoanalytic theory, regarded counter-transference as a “block” that can hinder therapy and the therapeutic relationship which may occur when the patient triggers certain feelings or reactions in the therapist based on the therapist’s past experiences and relationships (Winnicott, 1994). Another form of counter-transference, termed ‘projective-identification by Melanie Klein, occurs when “parts of the self and internal objects are split off and projected into the external object, which then becomes possessed by, controlled and identified with the projected parts” (Segal, 1974). A third type of counter-transference which is also the one I choose to base my paper on is a different kind of counter-transference; a more totalistic, objective form, referred to first by Winnicott in his paper “Hate in the Counter-transference”. Winnicott describes it as “an understandable and ‘normal’ reaction to the patient’s actual personality and behavior” which he ten
History and Theory: Freud and Rogers PSYCH/504 May 13, 2013 Nancy Lees History and Theory: Freud and Rogers The article, “Using the Delay Discounting Task to Test for Failures in Ego Control in Substance Abuse” in the Psychoanalytic Psychology Journal talks about the study done on the self-medication hypothesis of substance use disorders (SUDs). It says that individuals use substances to mask un-pleasurable feelings or experiences. As a society we see this daily. People who have experienced tough times and do not want to feel pain any longer; emotional or physical, are more likely to abuse substances. Individuals do this to make the pain go away which ultimately they really just defense mechanisms (Gottdiener, Murawski, & Kucharski, 2008).
As a result there are a variety of theories of personality which try to describe the cause and effect of the human personality. This essay will briefly compare and contrast two of these theories which include the psychoanalytic and humanistic theories of personality. It is important to have an in-depth understanding of the various types of theories with respect to personality because such a discourse enables psychologists to discover more about social behaviours in daily life (Fiske et al, 2010; 365). Both theoretical viewpoints, while being substantially different from each other, do share some common comparisons as we shall examine below. Psychoanalytical theories of personality stress the individual’s unconscious motivations which can be identified through dreams, slips of the tongue and fantasies (McCrae & Costa, 2003; 21).
These schools of thought were divided into 3 main ‘schools of thought’. Psychoanalysis and is also known as the first force. This approach applies a more medical and psychiatric practice for those people who have mental/emotional issues. The idea was based on personality being inherited factors as well as conditioning from early childhood experiences. It was conceived and developed by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) who taught other psychologists such as, Jung, Adler and Reich who then went onto develop psychotherapy in different directions.
The psychodynamic approach evolved from psychoanalysis, founded by Sigmund Freud, who considered that people’s behaviours are influenced by their motives or dynamics. Psychodynamics has three distinctive features or assumptions. That the difficulty a client is having has an origin in their childhood. Secondly, the client is not consciously aware of these affecting their motives and impulses, and lastly that it uses the interpretation of the transference relationship between client and councillor (McLeod, p.91). This essay will now consider these features in more depth.
I have also outlined some of the key concepts and techniques employed when using C.B.T., its educational nature and its strengths and limitations. “If we wish to change the sentiments, it is necessary before all to modify the idea which has produced (them), and to recognise either that it is not correct in itself or that it does not touch our interests. – Paul Dubois”. (Beck 1976, page 213). PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES & KEY CONCEPTS Aaron T. Beck developed his approach known as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy as a result of his work and observations with depressed clients.
Axia College Material Appendix D Psychotherapy Matrix Directions: Review Module 36 of Psychology and Your Life. Select three approaches to summarize. Include examples of the types of psychological disorders appropriate for each therapy. |Group Therapy |Behavioral Therapy |Drug Therapy | |Summary of |Group therapy is an environment where a group of people |Behavioral therapy builds upon the process of an |Drug therapy involves the use of prescribed medications to| |Approach |can gather (with or without a licensed therapist) to |individual’s learning through the application of classical|alter the brains normal operation by blocking or enhancing| | |discuss common aspects of their behavior or psychological |and operand conditioning. This approach is particularly |certain neurological functions.
“Evaluate the extent to which Freud’s theory of psychosexual development can help us to understand a client’s presenting issue”. Introduction In this assignment I will evaluate Freud’s psychosexual theory and demonstrate that I have an understanding of this theory, examining the stages that clients are meant to go through according to freud and how its relationship to this theory effects a client’s presenting issue. I will also show how Freud’s theory has a relationship to a client’s neurotic behaviour, and look at some of the criticisms that this theory attracted from other critics, this will help me understand how it was used in practice. Freud’s greatest contribution to psychology was his theories involving psychosexual development, he had a very sexual way at looking at what happens to our mind from birth to teenage years, but before I begin to explain these in more detail we need to look at Freud himself to understand and have an idea on what sort of man he was. Freud was born in the Czech Republic on 6th May 1856, his parents were practicing Jews and were very religious, but as Freud grew up he himself, even though being a Jew never practised.
Psychodynamic Approach Sigmund Freud is the founder of the psychodynamic approach. This approach focuses on the unconscious mind to explain behaviour, and also to treat people suffering from mental illness. This approach also looks into our behaviour and feelings as adults, as our childhood experiences and Interpol relationships can explain this. Freud believes that what drives our behaviour is conflict that arises between three parts of our psych, the id, superego and the ego. The three personalities of the psych are usually out of sync with each other.
It is the product of an unconscious mind being driven by its most basic desires and emotions in coaction with our traits determined by our early childhood experiences. The other main assumption of the Psychodynamic approach is that our personality is made up of three conflicting elements – The Id, the Ego, and the Superego. These three elements make up the “structure of personality”, as Freud explained it. He states that the Id exists in the unconscious mind and is concerned with instant gratification as it is controlled be instinctual forces. This element is innate – it is present from birth.