Management 255 Chapter 3

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REVIEW QUESTIONS – Chapter 3 1. What are individual differences, and why should managers understand them? Individual differences are the way in which factors such as skills, abilities, personalities, perceptions, attitudes, values, and ethics differ from one individual to another. Managers should understand them because it helps them better understand their employees and how they will react in certain situations. It will also help the manager understand how they can better work with employees and which employees will work well together. 2. Define personality, and describe its origins. Personality is a relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual’s behavior. One origin of personality is heredity. Heredity can determine traits such as extraversion, impulsiveness, and flexibility. Another origin is environment which shapes personality through family influences, educational influences, cultural influences, and other environmental influences. 3. Describe two theories of personality and explain what each contributes to our knowledge of personality. Two theories of personality are trait theory and integrative approach. In trait theory researchers believe that a combination of traits forms an individual’s personality. By looking at the combination of traits you can get a general idea of how an individual will be as an employee. Integrative approach focuses on both personal dispositions and situational variables as combined predictors of behavior. Integrative approach helps us look at personality by not only showing how a person perceives themselves, but also how others perceive them. 4. Describe the eight preferences of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. How does this instrument measure Carl Jung's ideas?
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