Abstract An ideal form of the therapeutic process for individual counseling is comprised of techniques and theories taken from the Psychodynamic Approach, Cognitive-Behavioral Approach, Person-Centered Approach and behavior modification techniques that are found in Operant Conditioning. These individual counseling techniques were chosen based on how effective and relevant to the client, they were deemed to be. Techniques taken from the psychodynamic approach is to allow the client to become conscious of all unconscious or subconscious concerns through the use of transference and working alliance. Techniques taken from the cognitive-behavioral approach is to help the client identify any irrational beliefs and thinking that is the cause of the client’s emotional disturbance. In the person centered approach, the therapy focuses on an important human characteristic - the client’s natural ability for growth and development, through the use of self actualization.
For example, one psychologist may use descriptive psychopathology to which will strive to provide answers for symptoms or mental illness. Either way, psychopathology is formally used to study mental illness or the distresses which may be affecting an individual. The issues of the abnormal psychology will assist in the study by the way we would use it in the attempt to capture interest, trigger concerns, and demands our attention. It also brings us to form and ask certain questions pertaining to any study. Psychopathology is not the same as psychopathy, which has to do with antisocial
Having Fun With Operational Definitions Adapted from teachpsychscience.org Directions: Identify and operationally define the independent and dependent variables in each of the following research ideas. Research Idea #1: A social psychologist was interested in whether people are more likely to exhibit conformity when they are in situations that make them feel nervous and unsure of themselves. What is the independent variable? How would you define it operationally? What is the dependent variable?
It helped to understand his faulty behaviors and decision making and to hopefully take a step toward the right path of correcting such irrational thought processes. It gives the treatment team the ability to begin to uncover the reasons that are behind the outwardly manifested behaviors. There are previous studies who have analyzed sexual offender behavior using a CBT approach. Using the CBT approach for future treatment with Bradley will enable the treatment team to specifically look into how Bradley feels his risk factors are affecting him. This treatment plan focuses on taking negative thinking patterns and inserting positive thinking patterns in their place.
Based on the literature to discuss how the threats can influence the individual motivation, and use some example and antitheses to prove why the threats are necessary to project management. Finally discuss how to correct use the threats. Key Words: Negative reinforcement; Threats; Motivation; Hierarchy of needs; Positive reinforcement. 2. Research and analysis Negative reinforcement is one of major skills for project managers.
The Psychodynamic Perspective The school of psychodynamics focuses on the interplay of the mental forces. It is said that humans have can have unconscious motives that underlie their true intentions. It is also said that the foundations of what was discovered rests on the evidence that people could be aware of their subconscious motivations while processing the things that affect their conscious thoughts that are related to their feelings, behaviors and intentions. Scientific studies show that psychodynamic perspective can reveal as to why a person’s actions are brought on by thoughts and feelings that would cause a reaction or a response in different situations. This school of study ultimately depends on the methods of the case studies that are performed to provide the necessary information that will clearly show them the evidence based on motivations.
He now championed a new more active and directive type of psychotherapy which he refereed to as Rational Therapy (RT). In RT the therapist sought to help the client understand and to act on the understanding that their personal philosophy contained beliefs that contributed to his / her own emotional pain. The new approach stressed the need to actively work to change a clients self defeating belief or behaviour by demonstrating their irrationality, self defeatism and rigidity.
Axia College Material |Psychodynamic |Behavioral |Cognitive | |Summary of |This type of approach brings unresolved past conflicts and|This type of approach is built on the basic processes of |This type of approach teaches people to think in a more | |Approach |unacceptable impulses from a state of unconsciousness into|learning, like reinforcement and extinction; it also |adaptive way by changing their dysfunctional cognitions | | |the conscious state. By doing this the patient can deal |assumes that normal and abnormal behaviors are both |about the world and themselves.
Also identifying behaviors that contribute to failure, thus adding a second layer of understanding. The next theory that fits as well is psychodynamic that deals more with the unconscious mind and childhood experiences of the individual. “But are persons really responsible for their actions in the sense that they (1) assess the possible alternative courses of action available to them, (2) choose a particular course, and (3) construct a complex set of acts to achieve intended results? Our religions and our laws are based on the premise that these propositions are true. And so are our emotional responses.
Underreporting occurs due to individuals being dishonest regarding their behavior, therefore causing an error in the research done. A possible solution to this limitation is focusing on observed behavior, and correlating the findings with the self-reporting behavior, therefore developing a conclusion that is more in-depth. Furthermore, Article 2 emphasized that other factors can influence self-labeling as a victim in relation to work-place bullying, not just anxiety and anger. In addition, discovering a moderation effect regarding negative acts of violence and self-labeling is hard to discover due to the psychological way an individual may experience an event. Lastly, Article 3 honed on the lack of variances of deviant behavior.