PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES & KEY CONCEPTS Aaron T. Beck developed his approach known as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy as a result of his work and observations with depressed clients. C.B.T. is based on fundamental assumptions that our thoughts can and do determine how we feel and behave in relation to events in our everyday lives and our environment. Beck contends that psychological problems or dysfunctional behaviour can occur as a result of faulty or distorted thinking and through engaging and employing C.B.T. techniques we can change or modify the way we think, to cause us to feel and act better even if our external situations and events do not change.
Two of the earliest forms of Cognitive behavioral Therapy were Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), developed by Albert Ellis in the 1950s, and Cognitive Therapy, developed by Aaron T. Beck in the 1960s. Cognitive Therapy Assumptions: • Abnormal behavior is caused by abnormal thinking processes • We interact with the world through our mental representation of it • If our mental representations are inaccurate or our ways of reasoning are inadequate then our emotions and behavior may become disordered The cognitive therapist teaches clients how to identify distorted cognitions through a process of evaluation. The clients learn to discriminate between their own thoughts and reality. They learn the influence that cognition has on their feelings, and they are taught to recognize observe and monitor their own thoughts. The behavior part of the therapy involves setting
They are genuine feelings based on the self's interactions with the environment and the people in it, at different points in time. Freud, in his psychoanalytic theory, regarded counter-transference as a “block” that can hinder therapy and the therapeutic relationship which may occur when the patient triggers certain feelings or reactions in the therapist based on the therapist’s past experiences and relationships (Winnicott, 1994). Another form of counter-transference, termed ‘projective-identification by Melanie Klein, occurs when “parts of the self and internal objects are split off and projected into the external object, which then becomes possessed by, controlled and identified with the projected parts” (Segal, 1974). A third type of counter-transference which is also the one I choose to base my paper on is a different kind of counter-transference; a more totalistic, objective form, referred to first by Winnicott in his paper “Hate in the Counter-transference”. Winnicott describes it as “an understandable and ‘normal’ reaction to the patient’s actual personality and behavior” which he ten
It refers to patterns of attitudes that are considered to be antisocial and criminal by society at large, but are seen as normal or necessary by the subculture or social environment in which they developed” (Babiak & Hare, 2007, p. 26). In other words, sociopath behavior is a condition of learning and environment. Additionally, a sociopath may have the ability to empathize and have a developed conscience (Babiak & Hare, 2007). On the other hand, a psychopath’s diagnosis may be more neurologically based and are lacking in a conscience. Diagnosing Psychopathy The most frequently used diagnostic tool for determining psychopathy is the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R).
This consisted of thoughts, ideas and memories that may have been temporarily forgotten but could easily be brought into the conscious mind when they were needed. The final submerged part of the iceberg Freud (1949) described as representing the unconscious mind; containing all kinds of disturbing and emotionally significant ideas and memories that influence the conscious and pre-conscious mind unknowingly. From his treatment of patients with severe neurosis, Freud saw the adult personality as having three basic components: the id, the ego and the super-ego. He believed these three elements work together to create the complexity of human
The mentally ill are more different than us than we can imagine and more like us than we care to admit.” (Valentine, 2011) This quote paints a poignant and provocative picture of Abnormal Psychology. Its eloquent phrasing leads us to look at the concept of abnormality through multifaceted lenses exposing the fine line that defines normal and abnormal. In the fairly young science of Abnormal psychology we are asked to consider thoughts, feelings, and behaviors as viable ways to determine the mental wellness of an individual. It is through the understanding of the past that we may move
The idea behind this was to use 'talking therapy' to bring past memories from the unconscious to the conscious. The unconscious is when you are doing or thinking something without being alert or aware that you are doing it. Along the idea of the unconscious Freud also developed the concept of the ID, the Ego and the Superego. The id is described as an impulsive, selfish side to our personality which is ruled by a pleasure principle, the superego is the moral part of our personality which recognises right from wrong; and our ego is the part of our mind which tries to rationalise and arbitrate both sides of our thoughts. Freud believed that there were two main causes of abnormality in general.
In other words, the parts of a person’s unconscious self work together to change the feeling of inferiority to that of superiority and not completeness. He continued to argue that the self ideal desires were perturbed by ethical and social demands. He further said that if correction of
Erikson emphasizes on ego identity, which is the mind’s conscious sense of self that is developed through series of stages. Every stage is categorized by a psychosocial crisis at that stage, of two conflicting consequences that one may attain at the end of the stage. If one have completed the stage competently, the person will feel a sense of virtue, conversely, if one have failed in that stage, the person will have a sense of inadequacy. Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development comprises of Trust vs. Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. Inferiority, Identity vs. Role Confusion, Intimacy vs.
Social Learning Theory Social learning theory was initially proposed by Bandura in 1963 and detailed in 1977. Albert Bandura’s social learning theory stress on the consequentiality of observation and modeling the comportments, postures, and emotional reactions of others. Bandura (1977) states, "Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling or from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action." A cognitive process that takes place in a social context where it is not purely behavioral.