If a leader is lacking in interpersonal communication skills, the message is likely to be misunderstood, causing confusion among those who are following. In regard to the criminal justice system this type of miscommunication could result in the loss of a case, incorrect charges filed, and possible violation of code of ethics. Because the information an individual is in charge of in the criminal justice system often times is so sensitive the lack of interpersonal communication can result in the loss of a leader’s position within the organization. It is the best practice to develop or possess excellent communication skills and interpersonal communications if a leader
When a person suffers with psychological distress the way in which they interpret situations can become skewed, which in turn has a negative impact on the actions they take. He named these cognitions "automatic thoughts" because he believed that people were not necessarily aware that the cognitions existed, but that they could identify these types of thoughts when questioned closely. Beck believed that pushing his clients to identify these automatic thoughts was integral to overcoming a particular difficulty (Westbrook et al, 2007). Beck was later influenced by Ellis in his work around Behavioural Therapy and the idea that people can overcome psychological issues by altering the way they perceive an experience and in turn use this to change their attitude and behaviour towards experiences which enable the person to have positive feelings instead of negative. Becks studies found that patients’ automatic thoughts fell into three categories, the patients had negative ideas about themselves, the world and/or the future and these thoughts could lead to anxiety and depression.
While the constant abuse by a bully is humiliating and painful for the victim, they are not the only ones being affected. The bully themselves can experience short and long term effects of their actions. Bullying can result in extreme violence by a victim pushed too far. Putting an end to bullying may seem like a massive undertaking, but it is a necessary one. Physical
This then lead for official statistics and the law enforcement to show a bias towards working class boys. This research shows how deviance only exists because people have decided to attach a label, thus the labelling theory is useful in explain how a deviant and criminal behaviour is classed as this. However, it fails to explain why some people certain crime and deviance in the first place before they are labelled. Also, as said in Item a ‘’deviant individuals are labelled when their actions are discovered and provoke reactions from society. However, this reaction will take differing forms, depending on how the nature of the action is perceived.’’ But as well as this, labelling theorists look at the effects and reaction it causes the individual to take.
They misuse their power of trust and use the influence they have on the individual. This, of course is not acceptable in any circumstances and can lead to a criminal record if found to be true. It is important that we care for and protect the individuals we are supporting and report any signs or suspicions of abuse. Abuse can happen in many ways and to understand the signs and symptoms and to be able to respond to the warning signals and prevent further abuse. Some are easier to notice than others.
The strain experienced and perceived by Dylan and Eric with respect to their failure to achieve positively valued goals, inequitable relationships and the removal of positive stimuli with an increase of negative stimuli in their lives laid the groundwork for anger and violence. This type of crime can be predicted and prevented. This can be accomplished by awareness of the climate and culture in the institutions children are involved with as well adaptations of a philosophy of inclusion. Practical applications of education and training regarding problem solving and positive peer relationships would be important preventative measures. Processing an offender in accordance with strain theory would involve community containment with therapeutic modalities that focus on cognitive restructuring, anger management and self esteem.
The consequences for learner are just as serious and potentially damaging, for example: • Emotional / psychological damage of being included or excluded for special treatment. This reinforces low self esteem beliefs that some learners are more likable / popular / deserving than others whilst others are there to be ignored Can keep them in a dependant position rather than encouraging them to develop coping skills of their own and to be independent Emotional / psychological damage of receiving mixed or inconsistent messages from trusted, respected, professional role models Lead to abuse or punishment by parents /
Some individuals feel that group therapy may be too threatening because you are letting other individuals know your business and you may feel uncomfortable about that. Another con is group therapy specifically for anxiety disorders and that may not be provided in the area that you life in (Schneier & Welkowitz, 1996). Individual therapy provides individuals greater availability, one-on-one attention and a greater focus on your specific issues. Individual therapy has been a treatment of choice for the one who are suffering (Schneier & Welkowitz,
“The general strain theory departs from traditional strain theories by emphasizing the role of individual’s affective responses to negative life experiences in fostering deviant behavior.” (Aseltine, Gore, & Gordon, 2000, p. 256). In simpler terms, the general strain theory is known for being separate from the traditional strain theories because it puts its emphasis on the role of a person’s reaction to negative experiences that have occurred in their life resulting in deviant actions. “Most recently, Agnew has argued that strain may result not only from the failure to achieve positively valued goals, but also from the inability to escape legally from painful situations. If one draws on the above theories as well as the stress, equity/justice, and aggression literatures one can begin to develop a more complete classification of the types of strain.” (Agnew,1992, p.50). Agnew went on to not only explain how the general strain theory addressed the criticisms that arose with the social strain theories, but as well proclaimed that there was three different types of strain-inducing stimulants.
Bullies seldom zone in on others that can potentially stand- up to them or challenge them. A bully will exercise their power on individuals that may: be from a different race or religion, a different socioeconomic background, be over or under weight, have a disability or even be an introvert- type within the workplace. Part of the bullying dynamic is the power imbalance between the bully and the victim, which is a guarantee that the bullying is unlikely to be reported. Bullying is a social process that can have a detrimental effect on our future. Similar to other forms of abuse, bullying is often hidden, thus creating the unlikelihood of finding a