Understand the Principles of Other Therapeutic Models of Counselling

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Understand the Principles of Other Therapeutic Models of Counselling 2.1 Explain the key features of two other therapeutic models Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) was pioneered by Aaron Beck in the 1960s, while he was a psychiatrist at the University of Pennsylvania. Becks work was influenced by previous work of psychologists B.F Skinner and J.B Watson and their work around conditioning. Becks approach was based on the ideas that how we think (cognition), how we feel (emotion) and how we act (behaviour) all interact together. Specifically, our thoughts determine our feelings and our behaviour therefore negative and unrealistic thoughts can cause us distress and result in problems. When a person suffers with psychological distress the way in which they interpret situations can become skewed, which in turn has a negative impact on the actions they take. He named these cognitions "automatic thoughts" because he believed that people were not necessarily aware that the cognitions existed, but that they could identify these types of thoughts when questioned closely. Beck believed that pushing his clients to identify these automatic thoughts was integral to overcoming a particular difficulty (Westbrook et al, 2007). Beck was later influenced by Ellis in his work around Behavioural Therapy and the idea that people can overcome psychological issues by altering the way they perceive an experience and in turn use this to change their attitude and behaviour towards experiences which enable the person to have positive feelings instead of negative. Becks studies found that patients’ automatic thoughts fell into three categories, the patients had negative ideas about themselves, the world and/or the future and these thoughts could lead to anxiety and depression. Beck believed a person’s thoughts, not external influences, determined their
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