Two of the earliest forms of Cognitive behavioral Therapy were Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), developed by Albert Ellis in the 1950s, and Cognitive Therapy, developed by Aaron T. Beck in the 1960s. Cognitive Therapy Assumptions: • Abnormal behavior is caused by abnormal thinking processes • We interact with the world through our mental representation of it • If our mental representations are inaccurate or our ways of reasoning are inadequate then our emotions and behavior may become disordered The cognitive therapist teaches clients how to identify distorted cognitions through a process of evaluation. The clients learn to discriminate between their own thoughts and reality. They learn the influence that cognition has on their feelings, and they are taught to recognize observe and monitor their own thoughts. The behavior part of the therapy involves setting
Also, in gestalt therapy we believe that contact (relation) is in the hart of healing processes. In An Integrative Relational approach to psychotherapy and supervision relation is seen as “a vehicle for psychotherapeutic change and the necessity of an effective supervisory alliance” (M. Gilbert and K. Evans, Psychotherapy supervision, 2000). The way relationship is established, the quality of relationship while it lasts and the way it ends is considered to be one of the major factors that influence outcomes of psychotherapy and, consequently, supervision. This is the main meeting point of gestalt and integrative approach. There are lot of researches that show how important is supervisory alliance based on characteristics of supervisors (Carey, Williams, and Wells 19895, Carifio and Hess 1987, Leddick and dye
Rogers was an American psychologist, who through his work developed his own distinctive approach guided by his sense of what seemed to help his clients (McLeod 2000). The approach is informed by phenomenological thinking, and emphasizes the self-concept of the person, and the possibility for growth and self fulfilment (McLeod 2000). Central to the approach, is notion that there are six key conditions which are ‘necessary and sufficient’ before therapeutic change can take place (Sanders 2006, p.9). Rogers believed that the client and the counsellor must make psychological contact, the client must believe that they require help, the counsellor should be in a position to be genuine and
Your therapist helps you identify negative thoughts and evaluate how realistic these thoughts are. Then, he or she teaches you to “unlearn” negative thought patterns and “learn” new, helpful ones. CBT is a problem-solving approach. You cannot control other people or situations, but you can control the way you perceive and react. CBT teaches you the skills to change your thinking and manage your reactions to stressful people and situations.
Compare and contrast the ways in which the psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioural approaches to counselling and make use of the counselling relationship This essay will consider the psychodynamic and cognitive behavioural approaches to counselling and how each approach uses the counselling relationship. It will compare and contrast the ways that each method uses. It will first consider the theoretical understanding of the counselling relationship of the two approaches, it will then considering the way that this relationship is then used within counselling. The psychodynamic approach to counselling places most importance on using the relationship between the counsellor and the client to explore and consider the emotions and feelings that are creating a difficulty in the client’s present situation (McLeod, p.90). The psychodynamic approach evolved from psychoanalysis, founded by Sigmund Freud, who considered that people’s behaviours are influenced by their motives or dynamics.
The approach focuses on maladaptive behaviors (addictive behaviors) by changing what it perceives to be the root cause of them (faulty thinking). The goal of the therapist is to encourage the clients to focus on their thoughts and actions. Advocates of this theory contend that only by modifying self-defeating thoughts and behavior patterns will the client truly be able to solve his or her own problems. Thus, the aim of the therapy is to eliminate troubling emotions or behaviors rather than to help patients gain insight into the underlying cause of their problems (Ford-Martin, 1999). Cognitive-behavioral family therapy (CBFT) is the extension model of CBT, however, it also focuses on the members of a family, considering them to be parts of a cohesive unit, and looking at such factors as interfamilial relationships, communication patterns, and other familial dynamics (Frey, 1999).
Person Centred Therapy [Name of the writer] [Name of the institution] Person Centred Therapy Introduction Person-centred therapy is a branch of psychological aid that treats a patient orally, wherein he patient is provided the opportunity to develop through proper encouragement their self of self-worth in order to establish how their attitudes, feelings as well as typical behaviour is affecting their life in a negative manner. Carl Rogers, the renowned American psychologist, introduced the humanistic approach towards psychology, and person-centred therapy is one of his most famous works. It is a distinctive approach to understanding how the human personality and relationships work together to form an individuals perception of themselves. Person centred therapy is applied in a wide array of domains such as counselling, education, organizations, work settings or psychotherapy. Rogers introduced this type of therapy in the 1940’s and 1950’s, and is generally used by psychotherapists around the world due to its humanistic approach towards treating the patient.
This approach can be used for substance abusers, or people with severe disorders that impair their ability to function in normal living. Therapeutic Goal The goal for the therapist is to translate his or her psychodynamic understanding and emotional experience of the client and the team into clinical interventions that have a practical, positive and measurable effect on the client's ability to plan and pursue his or her life. Treatment Strategies In all of their work with clients, milieu therapists draw upon a psychodynamic understanding of client experience and behavior. For example, in response to a client who is persistently disruptive in therapy groups, the milieu therapist might offer an interpretation, set a limit or ask the client to leave, encourage other group members to give the client feedback on the effect of the behavior on the group, and/or call upon the rest of the staff to consider what is being expressed for the client group through this behavior. Similarly, when a client refuses to apply for a job, after agreeing to do so as part of his or her treatment plan, the milieu therapist must determine the most effective intervention.
The strength approach emerge by challenging the language and the ideology in mental health practice which focused on the clients’ inabilities and deficits and not on what the clients could do, referring to clients by their diagnose, for example “the schizophrenic” or the maniac-depressive” (Healy, 2005). Berta Capen Reynolds together with Erving Goffman’s work on stigma, labelling and marginalization and Dennis Saleebey work in resilience, played an important part in developing the strengths perspective. According to Saleebey, the key concepts for this theory are assisting
Humanistic therapies focus on self-development, growth and responsibilities. They seek to help individuals recognise their strengths, creativity and choice in the 'here and now'. Existential therapy Existential therapy focuses on exploring the meaning of certain issues through a philosophical perspective, instead of a technique-based approach. Gestalt therapy Gestalt therapy can be roughly translated to 'whole' and focuses on the whole of an individual's experience, including their thoughts, feelings and actions. Gaining self-awareness in the 'here and now' is a key aspect of gestalt therapy.