This is because the elaborated code is used within textbooks, by teachers and is the language an examiner expects the child to use within their exam. Early socialisation means middle class children are already fluent using the elaborated code meaning they are more likely to succeed. However, Bernstein recognises that working class children fail because schools fail to teach them how to use the elaborated speech code; not because they are culturally deprived. Bereiter and Engelmann claim that the language used in lower class homes is deficient. They described that working class families use gestures, single word sentences and disjointed phrases when communicating.
It is said that children from a middle class background are more likely to do better than children from a working class background. One of the main arguments is because working class children are culturally deprived. Being culturally deprived means that you are deprived from the values needed for school for you to succeed. Being culturally deprived can affect a child’s education as they’re more likely to disagree with the schools system, making them not pay attention or wanting to learn. This can cause them to drop out and not Finnish there education so they would only being able to get a working class job.
Material deprivation can also extend to before formal education, with middle class young children being given educational toys, whilst working class children are far less likely to receive these expensive toys and are more likely to be given non-educational toys. This is arguably one of the most important factors, as it is a huge hindrance on the intellectual development of an individual to be cut off from information that their peers have access to, and that they need to be effective in their progression through the education system. Cultural deprivation is a theory stemming from home background that is argued to have an effect on educational achievement. Cultural deprivation is the inadequate socialisation and pre-primary education of young children. Cultural deprivation can include speech codes, the way parents interact with their children and the values children inherit.
Howard Becker studied the way teachers judged pupils according to how close they were to being the ‘ideal pupil’. He found that middle class children were closest to the ideal pupil image where as working class students were furthest away due to unruly behaviour. Labelling causes social class differences as teachers label the middle class as more able and ready to learn so they tend to receive more attention than the working class. For the working class, it means that they never get the chance to prove themselves and work towards coming out of the working class bracket - even if they are willing and capable. They are then ignored, remain behind and the negative stereotypes of working class children being less able and unruly continues.
He took a sample of primary school children who were born of the first week in March 1946, and divided that sample into 2 groups, those who have sole use of a bathroom, toilet and hot water, and those who did not, or shared them. Those who were living in unsatisfactory conditions scored lower in their ability to read. He believed it was because poor housing conditions commonly meant overcrowding and an unsuitable diet
They would not have learned the value of working in order to gain. They will put greater emphasis on appearance rather than substance simply because their needs were met with little to no effort of their own. This type of attitude will spill over into their workplace, into their relationship and eventually in their own children. However, there is hope. Recognizing the codependency and accepting it as a role in the dysfunctional family is the first step in breaking the cycle.
This is usually in the peak of the women’s career. This is when men mover ahead and women get left behind. This going in and out of the labour force will mean that they miss out on valuable experience and therefore lower MRP. It is not just due to having babies. Some employers won’t hire women because they know that women will leave to have children in the life and take time of work to do so, while still costing the company money.
Gingerbread. (Online) Available from: http://gingerbread.org.uk (Accessed October 2013) From the perspective of Marxism it can be argued that a system of capitalism prevents single parents from progressing out of poverty situations. The single parents role is mainly to provide for the children in the home, using their instincts to nurture them in everyday norms and values without experiencing or having the means for betterment, e.g. to ensure the child conforms and as a function goes to school each day.
There are three main aspects to cultural deprivation. The first is intellectual development; this is the student’s development of thinking and reasoning skills and the ability to solve problems. Many working class children lack educational books and activities to stimulate intellectual development. Douglas (1964) found that working class boys scored lower on their ability test than middle class boys. He argues that working class parents are less likely to support their children’s intellectual development through reading at home.
In order to confirm that working class underachievement is a result of home circumstances and family background we must look closely at different variables, which contribute to this accusation. The interest parents have in their child’s education has been proven to vary the child’s achievement majorly, Douglas said that parental interest in child’s education is the most important factor affecting a child’s attainment, this is because parents lacking it are more than likely unable to encourage their child with their studies like others do. This affects working-class children, as their parents are more prone to being less well educated. Similarly, how well the parent is education affects the child’s education too, because a parent who is well educated can help with the child’s studies, take them to cultural events and know what resources they need etc, again a working class parent is less likely to be well educated resulting on less knowledge to pass on to their child, ultimately leaving them with un-successful results. When a child is born they have no culture at all, so it is up to their parents to teach and transform them into the person they’d like them to be, this is called socialization and the early stages of it are the most important.