Sociology Essay Some theorists think that cultural deprivation is the reason why working class children fail and middle class children succeed. To succeed in education you will need cultural equipment (language, self-discipline and reasoning skills) something that the working class children lack. They lack this equipment because their parents cannot socialise properly with their children, so these children grow up culturally deprived leading to their under-achievement at school. Whereas middle class children have parents who can socialise properly with them, giving them all the cultural equipment they need. Intellectual development is one aspect to cultural deprivation.
Children with a lack of cultural capital are more likely to use the restricted code (limited vocabulary) which disadvantages them at school as they feel excluded and are therefore less successful. Working-class children typically use the restricted code. Bourdieu argues that cultural capital affects academic achievement as it ties in with educational capital. Middle-class children with cultural capital are better equipped to meet the demands of the school curriculum.
Cultural Deprivation Theory CDT is the abbreviation for ‘Cultural Deprivation Theory’; the Cultural Deprivation Theory is the main cultural explanation for class differences in achievement. ‘Culture’ meaning ‘Norms, values, beliefs, skills, knowledge’ (NVBSK) that a society regards as important, this culture is then passed onto the next generation by socialisation. The different *social* classes mean that children are socialised differently; this then means the children achieve differently. In CDT, some working class parents don’t pass on NVBSK needed for educational success; CDT theorists see three factors responsible for working-class under-achievement. 1) Lack of intellectual stimulation – Books, educational toys, and the overuse of television.
Cultural factors have a profound effect on social class differences in educational achievement, as evidenced firstly by the research of Gibson and Asthana, who surmised that the lower or serving classes are more likely to suffer from material deprivation in their home life, which in turn may hold the children back if they are deprived such adequate resources as a computer, correct textbooks or even writing materials, this can inhibit a child’s educational potential severely, as can living in a smaller house; the consequence of this being that they will be much less likely to possess a private, quiet study area of their own. In extreme situations, it is possible for children may have an inferior diet and an improperly heated house, which could result in illness and unexpected absences from school, in turn lower grades result. According to the research, the effects of material deprivation are cumulative, creating a cycle of deprivation. This would suggest that home background surely influences a child’s education. Next, the amount of money one’s family possesses and the quality of area one lives in affects the quality of school one is able to enrol in and attend.
Many EMG children also do not have that initial push of how important education is for them. They may have a fatalistic view on where they see themselves fitting into to society which may rub on to their children. Sugarman did a lot of research on this and found it as being one of the top reasons why children can fail in education. Children who believe their future is already predetermined will not put as much focus on education as they think they will only get working-class jobs. As parents may be new to the UK or not speak English they may not understand the educational system and the application process.
Explainining class differences in achievement Cultural deprivation theory blames the failings of the child on his/her background. This diverts the attention from the educational system which may contribute to, or account for, class differences in attainment. Cultural deprivation theorists argue that many working-class homes lack the books, educational toys and activities that would stimulate a child’s intellectual development. Bernstein and Young (1967) found that the way mothers think about and choose toys has an influence on their child’s intellectual development. Middle-class mothers are more likely to have more of an interest in their child’s intellectual development.
Cultural deprivation sociologists see three factors as accountable for working-class under-achievement. One such factor being the lack of intellectual stimulation. Working class families are less likely to give their children educational toys and activities that will stimulate their thinking and reasoning skills, and less likely to read them. This effects their intellectual development so that when they begin school they are at a disadvantage compared with middle-class children. Another factor responsible for working-class under-achievement is the restricted speech code.
Blanca Mongelos ENG 101 5005 Prof: Zaleski ESSAY 5B Is technology ruining childhood? The extreme emphasis on technology today is ruining childhood, by promoting an entourage that encourages immobility and discourages traditional play and interaction with other children. Play is a very important facet for childhood development. In the past, the majority of our childhood time was spending interacting with other children, playing with toys and outdoor activities. The growth of technology promotes environments in which toys are unappealing for children and they rather spend all their time inside the house, immobile and apart from other children, thing that is ruining an important developmental aspect of childhood.
This could be for a number of reasons, such as being from a poor family or them feeling like they are not getting enough attention at home. ‘” Children live in fear”’ said Becker (“Uganda: Child Abductions…”). The way that children in these situations are being treated is terrible. Adolescents who have been abducted are
However the conflict view argues that childhood has not improved because massive inequalities still exist amongst children such as the control and oppression of adults. The March of progress view argues that society has recognised that childhood is a distinct phase in one’s life where children should be treated separately to adults. Children are more valued, cared for, protected and educated due to the introduction of various laws. The child labour act of 1938 restricts children from going into paid employment and protects them from the exploitation of working life. In 1870 it became compulsory for all children to receive an education which provides children with equal opportunities.