Assess the Claim That the Main Cause of Educational Underachievement Is Due to Home Background" (20 Marks)

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Home background is a huge part of the developmental stage of human life. It can set us up for success or failure and shapes us into our adult selves. We gain our values and culture from the primary socialisation provided in the home. Education is the next big step from the home, so it seems logical that home background will have a certain affect on educational achievement. The question is, how much of an impact does home background have on education? Material deprivation is argued to have a huge impact on education. Without access to things such as the internet or revision materials, advancing your knowledge outside of school is almost impossible. This puts working class children at a distinct disadvantage to their middle class counterparts who have access to educational books, the internet, private tutors and even just a quiet area to study. Material deprivation can also extend to before formal education, with middle class young children being given educational toys, whilst working class children are far less likely to receive these expensive toys and are more likely to be given non-educational toys. This is arguably one of the most important factors, as it is a huge hindrance on the intellectual development of an individual to be cut off from information that their peers have access to, and that they need to be effective in their progression through the education system. Cultural deprivation is a theory stemming from home background that is argued to have an effect on educational achievement. Cultural deprivation is the inadequate socialisation and pre-primary education of young children. Cultural deprivation can include speech codes, the way parents interact with their children and the values children inherit. The restricted speech code is detrimental to a child's education, making it extremely difficult to excel in academic work such as essays where correct

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