For example, nurseries and playgroups have an increasingly important role in the socialisation of young children whose parents are working full-time. Also, family life is much less stable than it was in the past and this undermines the traditional functions of the family. ________________________________________________________________________ From a functionalist opinion, they believe that the society we live in is based on an unwritten set of shared norms and values – a consensus. This is the consensus theory. This is primary socialisation which is taught mainly by families which teaches the young generation the norms and values.
So, If a child is in a social group deprived of these factors he could underachieve. One example of cultural deprivation is parental interest. This is argued by sociologist JWB Douglas. Douglas argued that the most important factor affecting a child's attainment was parental interest in the child’s education. This is because if the parents lacks this they wouldn't be able to encourage and help their child with their studies in the same way others do.
However the conflict view argues that childhood has not improved because massive inequalities still exist amongst children such as the control and oppression of adults. The March of progress view argues that society has recognised that childhood is a distinct phase in one’s life where children should be treated separately to adults. Children are more valued, cared for, protected and educated due to the introduction of various laws. The child labour act of 1938 restricts children from going into paid employment and protects them from the exploitation of working life. In 1870 it became compulsory for all children to receive an education which provides children with equal opportunities.
He argues that this is due to working-class parents being less likely to support and encourage their child’s intellectual development at home, therefore they are intellectually deprived compared to the middle-class pupils they are at school with. Sociologists such as Douglas believe that working-class homes often lack the books, educational toys and activities that would stimulate a child’s intellectual development. Language is another factor that is believed to create a social class difference. Basil Bernstein (1975) identified a language difference between the middle-class and working-class. He said the working-class are more likely to use the ‘restricted code’ which include limited vocabulary and is based on the use of short and unfinished, grammatically simple sentences, whereas the middle-class are more likely to use the ‘elaborated code’ which includes a wider range of vocabulary and is based on longer and grammatically more complex sentences.
Explainining class differences in achievement Cultural deprivation theory blames the failings of the child on his/her background. This diverts the attention from the educational system which may contribute to, or account for, class differences in attainment. Cultural deprivation theorists argue that many working-class homes lack the books, educational toys and activities that would stimulate a child’s intellectual development. Bernstein and Young (1967) found that the way mothers think about and choose toys has an influence on their child’s intellectual development. Middle-class mothers are more likely to have more of an interest in their child’s intellectual development.
They are able to manipulate the education system to their advantage which means their children have a better chance at doing well in school. Disconnected-local choosers and semi-skilled choosers are working-class parents who have a lack of cultural capital and therefore their child’s academic progress suffers as they are usually sent to ‘local’ schools which they aren’t necessarily best suited for. Children who have cultural capital also have an elaborated code (wider vocabulary) which gives them an advantage at school as it is the code used by teachers and in textbooks. The elaborated code is typically used by middle class and helps with their academic achievement. Children with a lack of cultural capital are more likely to use the restricted code (limited vocabulary) which disadvantages them at school as they feel excluded and are therefore less successful.
Abstract Research and Census indicates that single parents experience more stress due to economic, social and financial burdens, compared to traditional parents which included both parents. Many reviews indicate that stress has a major impact on the development of the single parent’s children. However, there are mixed views on the impact of single parent families and child development, coupled with the ability to effectively be a positive or negative role model. The purpose of writing this paper is to see whether single parent families provide adequate support and education, in spite of the stress linked to their households. Whether or not a parent is a positive or negative role model in a child’s life, often depends on the nurturing and nurturing of the individual.
A married couple could divide those responsibilities and schedule their work hours so that the kids hardly spend time alone. It will be easier to guide them in a positive direction. Poverty is a major factor that negatively affects the households. Both the parents and the kids will have a much more stressful life and that stress will reflect upon their performance at work and at school. An education costs money and a single parent with only one source of income plus all the other payments will definitely cause problems.
Considering this, there are also increasing differences between adults and children in terms of neglect and abuse. Marxists also believe that the type of childhood someone gets depends on their social class and ethnicity, implying that the middle class will give their children a better upbringing than a family of the working class.
A social worker will act upon this warnings and issue necessary measures. Lack of social equality may cause different actions in despite of the same distress. The threshold of alerting the government varies with both disabilities and social class background. Teachers are more reluctant to alert child negligent, when the parents are upper class. Fear of confrontation with resourceful parents overwhelms their desire of alerting child neglect.