Ancient Contributions Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome made their contributions Western Civilization and the modern world today. Some contributions were small, while others were big. Both civilization shared the same characteristic, they both began as small areas and rose to become what we know them as two of the most influential civilizations today. From people, to ideas, to inventions, these two civilizations influenced everyone around them and gave us the building blocks to become the successful civilization that we are today. The Ancient Greece culture has made many contributions to Western Civilization.
Both Lysander and King Pausanias actions demonstrated their incapability to lead Sparta which consequently resulted in the ineffective leadership of Sparta as hegemon of Greece. Lysander was the dominant figure in Spartan politics presiding the fall of the Athenian Empire in 404 BC, and his and Sparta’s aim was a far as possible to secure Greek hegemony allowing for Spartan Imperial expansion. The ‘anomaly’ of Lysander’s dominance within Sparta’s military and political enterprises, traditionally governed by the Kingships, saw him exploit his foreign policy across the populas of the Aegean much to their discontent “The Spartans reckoned that they themselves, having defeated the Athenians, would now securely dominate the whole of Greece” (Thucydides 8.2.4). Lysander installed a brutal pro-Spartan oligarchy (known as ‘The Thirty Tyrants’) on Athens, reciprocating this system of government in other Greek states in order to suppress prevailing democracies. Installed to govern were pro-Spartan Harmosts, all supported by a garrison of troops who served under the orders of Lysander.
The Ancient Greeks dared to wonder and imagine about unknown things, and their literature and art awed the world. Greece was established in about 750 B.C., and was considered to be the culture that provided the foundation of western civilization. Education was obviously very important in these various Greek city-states. With the exception of Sparta, education was one of the most valued things in Greece. The goal of education in ancient Greece was to produce citizens trained in the arts of both peace and war (http://www.crystalinks.com).
Besides the economic damage, Ionian cities suffered from political pressure: in all the cities, ruled by Persians there were tyrants appointed. The failure of The Scythian Campaign of Darius disrupted the prestigious of his army. At last, the fewness of Persian troops located in the western part of Asia Minor made Greeks confident of the fast victory. The history of Fifth century BC deserves special attention. It was an excellent example of how the mistakes in the organization can spoil the results.
Possibly the greatest vulnerability was 'the weakness within' - the constitution gave the President, the states and the military too much control, whilst proportional voting meant that the Reichstag was separated and weak. There was no single party in complete control and parties had to join together to form a government. However, each party had different goals which caused in-fighting and instability making it difficult for the Reichstag, with its many changes in power, to govern effectively. This was reflected in 376 political assassinations up to 1923. From the start there was economic instability because of the cost of World War One and there was widespread disillusion within the German people.
Hellenic Athens and Sparta The barbaric stereotypes people think of when referring to the Spartan society makes the Athenian civilization seem to correspond to our modern society. However, the savage imagery we conceive of the Spartans prevents the exploration of their civility. Even though they did have an extremely militaristic state of mind, they also had an incredibly well organized government system. Politically, socially, and culturally, the two Hellenic city-states of Greece had many differences, but simultaneously were very similar. In the eighth century B.C.E., Hellenic Athens was an oligarchic government.
Centuries after the Rise of Rome and their extraordinary historical achievements, was their collapse. This was caused by the combination of numerous political, economic and social factors or otherwise known as the P.E.S. These problems included corruptions in both the military and resource productions, and of course their continuous failed attempts of expanding their empire resulting in others and even their own society to turn and rebel against them. Political factors involve people and organizations with such power, these include powerful emperors, leaders and empires. Although if people with such power are unable to maintain control, their society usually collapses and resolves in chaos.
Greek culture, specifically during the era of Classical Antiquity, is renowned for advancements in numerous disciplines that would reach through centuries and continue to shape and influence society more than any other civilization throughout history. Ideally located, Greece is surrounded by three seas, which aided them in both conquest and trade throughout the known world. They were able to flourish throughout the Mediterranean area into modern day Italy, France, Spain, Africa, and the near East, spreading their language and their customs into these areas. Although these areas became colonized by Greeks they were never truly united, however they did identify with one another culturally. Aside from the vast trade economy they established, Greeks also had an intricate system of polytheistic belief.
Caesar would later destroy what was left of the republic. Over the years as an empire, the political system appeared to be a ball and chain to the public. “ The political office was seen as a hardship, not an asset to the public. There was nearly constant warfare among the Roman leaders themselves in the century leading up to 31 B.C., when the Roman Empire was established. One of the most difficult problems was choosing a new emperor.