GENETICS-1 1) Complex organisms produce sex cells that unite during fertilization, forming a single cell known as a) an embryo c) a gonad b) a gamete d) a zygote 2) A cell with a diploid chromosome number of 12 divided two times, producing four cells with six chromosomes each. The process that produced these four cells was most likely a) internal fertilization b) external fertilization c) mitotic cell division d) meiotic cell division 3) Which diagram represents a pair of homologous chromosomes? 4) In minks, the gene for brown fur (B) is dominant over the gene for silver fur (b). Which set of genotypes represents a cross that could produce offspring with silver fur from parents that both have brown fur? a) Bb x Bb c) BB x BB b) BB x bb d) Bb x bb 5) When a certain pure strain of fruit fly is cultured at a temperature of 16˚C, all of the flies will develop straight wings.
When cells need to divide, the cells have to replicate and copy its entire DNA so that each daughter cell gets one complete set of genetic information. The hydrogen pairs that are holding together the base pairs are broken by enzymes, like helicase, and the molecule is split in half creating two strands. This process is also called the “unzipping process”. These two strands have to follow the rules of base pairing. Each strand serves as a template for the attachment of complementary bases.
These bases are, C G T A each base has a complimentary base e.g. C pairs with G and T pairs with A, these base pairs join in the centre of the two strands by hydrogen bonding. DNA is split into triplet codes of 3 bases, chromosomes which are long strands of DNA highly coiled which contain thousands of genes, these appear in sex cells and before a cell replicates. For DNA to be in every cell of the body it has to be replicated as the parents sex cells cannot hold all the DNA for every cell in the organism, but the parents sex cells do hold all the information for every cell in the offspring. DNA replication takes place in every nucleus in several stages.
Aurora kinases are involved in this checkpoint function. These kinases are only expressed during mitosis and overexpressed in a wide range of tumours. Aurora A is thought to play a role in regulating centrosome function. At the spindle checkpoint, Aurora B plays an essential role in recruiting proteins such as baba1 to the kinetechores. This promotes chromosome alignemtne, and ensures each daughter cell receives the correct number of chromosomes, The eukaryotic cell cycle is divided into several phases - G1, S, G2 and M. Chromosomal DNA replication takes place during S phase, whereas cell division (mitosis and cytokinesis) occurs
Process of Protein Synthesis How does DNA, through the process of protein synthesis responsible for the ultimate expression of the characteristics in the organism. An embryonic cell divides again and again. Where there is one cell, there are two, then four, then eight. Each holds all the genetic information needed to create a human being. Then how, exactly, do these cells make copies of themselves?
Simply stated, Mitosis divides the nucleus of a cell to produce these two daughter cells and consists of five stages. The stages in an animal cell include Prophase- chromatin is condensing and the mitotic spindle begins to form, but the nucleus is still intact, Metaphase- spindle is complete and the chromosomes are all aligned at the metaphase plate, Anaphase- the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving back to the poles of the cell, Telophase- daughter nuclei are forming and Cytokinesis has begun. In plants, this process is quite the same except for Cytokinesis. Instead, while in Telophase, vesicles from the Golgi apparatus move along microtubules to the middle of the cell, producing a cell plate. Cell wall materials are carried in the vesicles that make up the cell plate and then are released, and actually form two cell walls.
Still, scientists have made a lot of progress in understanding how certain changes in DNA can cause normal lymphocytes to become lymphoma cells. Normal human cells grow and function mainly based on the information contained in each cell’s chromosomes. Human DNA is packaged in 23 pairs of chromosomes, which are long molecules of DNA in each cell. DNA is the chemical that makes up our genes – the instructions for how our cells function. Some genes contain instructions for controlling when cells grow and divide.
In the cells of these organisms, the DNA is twisted around bead-like proteins called histones. The histones are also coiled tightly to form chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of the cell. When a cell reproduces, the chromosomes (DNA) get copied and distributed to each offspring, or daughter, cell. Non-sex cells have two copies of each chromosome that get copied and each daughter cell receives two copies (mitosis). During meiosis, precursor cells have two copies of each chromosome that gets copied and distributed equally to four sex cells.
One of the causes that brought about the differences in alleles is sexual reproduction during meiosis. There are two main events during meiosis, crossing over of chromatids and independent segregation of chromosomes. During meiosis I, homologous pairs of chromosomes come together and pair up. The chromatids twist around each other and bits of chromatids swap over, the crossing over of chromatids in meiosis I means that each of the four daughter cells formed from meiosis II contain chromatids with a different set of alleles, which increases genetic variation. Meanwhile during the independent segregation of chromosomes, half of your chromosomes come from your mum (called maternal chromosomes) and half from your dad (called paternal chromosomes).
Compare and Contrast Mitosis | Meiosis | Cloning is a part of the process | Has half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell | This cell division makes identical cells to the parent cells | Relates only to sexual reproduction | Process in which growth takes place | Takes place only in the formation of gametes or spores | Daughter cells are genetically identical | Daughter cells are genetically different from the parent cell | Not involved in sexual reproduction | A single cell spilt to form four daughter cells or gametes, each have half the number of chromosomes found in most cells | First step is the copying of the chromosomes | Each gamete has its own unique combination of genetic material | A cell that is about to divide has twice the normal number of chromosomes | As in mitosis the chromosomes are duplicated and paired | After the duplication of chromosomes the nuclear membrane dissolves and spindle fibers develop | Form there is no longer resembles mitosis. The pairs separate and divide for the first time | The matched chromosome pairs are pulled apart and move to opposite ends of the cell | The chromosomes pairs separate and each daughter divides again, producing a total of four cells, each with the half the normal complement of DNA | After the separation the nuclear membranes reform and the cell splits down the middle | Crossing over between pairs of chromosomes results in the shuffling of genetic material to yield chromosomes with a new genetic makeup | The result is two cells each which carry a set of chromosomes that are identical to the original | | The process of meiosis are never identical because of how the cell splits, when the cell splits by the process of meiosis the parental chromosomes split but then they cross over and by crossing over the combination is different types of cell that are made up with different
What is Mitosis? Mitosis produces two daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell. If the parent cell is haploid (N), then the daughter cells will be haploid. If the parent cell is diploid, the daughter cells will also be diploid. N → N 2N → 2N This type of cell division allows multicellular organisms to grow and repair damaged tissue.
1. The definition of Mitosis: Mitosis is the process of which a nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes. During mitosis the cell duplicates its chromosomes and splits them between two new cells in one division. 2. An explanation as to why the process of mitosis is important to a living organism.
Meiosis is the process, it also carries DNA in the chromosomes, which asci have. Section D of this lab was to find the production of MI asci and MII asci, results show that there is a higher amount of MII then there is of MI, in a single slide of perithecia. Introduction There are two types of cell division, mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is usually used for the growth and replacement of cells, while meiosis produces the spores used in the reproduction. In the beginning of this lab it covered mitosis, the process by which a cell divides into two separate cells, called the daughter cells.
Mitosis produces two daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell. Meiosis produces daughter cells that have one half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell (Michael J. Gregory, 2006). Meiosis is necessary in sexually-reproducing organisms because the fusion of two gametes (fertilization) doubles the number of chromosomes. The purpose of mitosis is for single-celled organisms to divide to reproduce. Cell division in multicellular organisms enables the organism to grow larger while the cells remain small.
What is gene therapy? Carried on chromosomes in the nuclei of all somatic cells, genes are the basic physical and functional units of heredity. Passed from parent to child, they contain instructions for making proteins. If genes are altered, they may not produce the right proteins or produce them correctly, and a child can develop a genetic disorder such as cystic fibrosis or haemophilia. Gene therapy is an experimental technique for correcting defective genes responsible for disease development.
The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed.  Figure 1: The cell cycle http://adasilva.glogster.com/chapter-10-bio/ Mitosis is the process that facilitates the equal partitioning of replicated chromosomes into two identical groups. Before partitioning can occur, the chromosomes must become aligned so that the separation process can occur in an orderly fashion. The alignment of replicated chromosomes and their separation into two groups is a process that can be observed in virtually all eukaryotic cells.  Both the alignment and separation processes are the consequence of the chromosomes interacting with filamentous proteinaceous structures, known as microtubules.
Influence 1 Running head: PARENTAL INFLUENCE ON CHILDREN Parental Influence on Children Deborah Byars Mid-Continent University Influence 2 Parental Influence on the Development of Children At conception, the human egg and sperm meet and fuse into a zygote, the one cell beginning of human life. Immediately after conception, the zygote begins the infinite amount of mitotic divisions to produce an embryo, fetus, and eventually a baby. Throughout each phase of growth and development, the DNA of the child directly influences its development. The child’s genome will become its most distinguishing feature; its DNA is different from everyone else’s DNA. However, the child’s genome is directly influenced by the chromosomes the biological parents of the child passed in their egg and sperm.
This is how multi-cellular organisms grow larger and repair damage. Meiosis creates haploid gametes. These are the cells used in sexual reproduction such as eggs in females and sperm in males. These cells only have half the genetic makeup of the parent cell. Mitosis can occur in either haploid or diploid cells, whereas meiosis occurs only in cells with the diploid number of chromosomes.
Mitosis in Onions and Meiosis in Gametes The cells in every organism must make copies of themselves so that the organism may grow and reproduce. The cells in an adult human are about the same size as that in a newborn baby’s body. Because of this, every organism needs mitosis (the ability for cells to make copies of themselves) and meiosis (the making of gamete cells). Mitosis is a four stage cycle where cells make copies of their chromosomes, pull these copies apart, and create two new daughter cells. The pre-stage, Interphase, is when the cell grows, does its specific job, and prepares for mitosis.