Each genome contains the information needed to maintain and create the organism. The process of genetic engineering involves extracting of a small piece of cellular DNA, called a plasmid, from the bacteria if organism involved in the manipulation. A very small section of the circular plasmid is then cut out by the restriction enzymes which act as molecular scissors. The gene from the organism being modified is then inserted into this space and the plasmid is therefore modified. The genetically modified plasmid is now inserted and introduces into a new organism which starts divides rapidly.
I. The nucleus envelope separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell; within the wall of the envelope is where nucleus pores are found. J. Ribosomes are attached to the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and direct the assembly of proteins that are then modified within the network of membranes within the rough endoplasmic reticulum. K. The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum provides a large surface area for chemical reactions to take place within the cell. Describe the main types of human tissue, Describe the function of the main human tissue types (600 words) (P2/3) * Epithelial tissue protect the tissues that lie beneath it.
Proteins are formed through condensation reactions which bond amino acids together with peptide bonds in a particular sequence and the type of protein that is created is defined by the unique sequence of the amino acids. DNA and RNA are nucleic acids that are formed in the nucleotides and are both involved in the process of protein synthesis. Deoxyribonucleic acid, more commonly known as DNA, is located within the nucleus of the cell and contains the entire genetic code for an organism within its structure. DNA has two very important functions which are: to convey information from one generation of cells to the next by the process of DNA replication and to provide the information for the synthesis of proteins necessary for cellular function. Basically, DNA controls protein synthesis.
Transgenesis and Cloning Transgenesis is the process of inserting a gene from one source into a living organism that would not normally contain the inserted gene. The gene can come from the same species (called Cisgenesis) or from a different species entirely. To facilitate the transfer of genes from one organism to another, often a Transgenic Organism with Recombinant DNA is created: -The first step in creating an organism capable of carrying out the transformation process is to isolate the required gene. This is done so using Restriction Enzymes, which target a specific gene sequence. The gene is often cut with staggered ends, called “Sticky Ends” which only allow specific and complementary gene sequences bond by base pairing.
Rough ER transports these proteins to the regions in the cell where it is needed. | Ribosomes | A ribosome is composed of two parts known as the large and small subunits. Each of these is a combination of protein and a type of RNA known as rRNA. | the main thing they do is that they arrange the strands of the amino acids for use of the other parts of the cell and ultimately the body. | Goigi Apparatus | The main function of the Golgi apparatus is to be responsible for handling the macromolecules that are required for proper cell functioning | It packages and ships molecules made in the ER.
Describe each process (including differences between bacteria and eukaryotes) and explain the significance of the differences between replication and transcription When first going through DNA replication, the two strands of double helix unwind. Each strand is an outline for the formation of a new, complementary strand. DNA helicase enzymes hang along the DNA molecule, opening the double helix as they move. Once the strands are separated, helix-destabilizing proteins bind to single DNA strands, preventing re-formation of the double helix until the strands are copied. Enzymes called topoisomerases produce breaks in the DNA molecules and then reconnect the strands, relieving strain and effectively preventing tangling and knotting during replication.
This energy is then in turn used by the cell to carry out various functions. Nucleus- The main function of the cell nucleus is to control gene expression and mediate the replication of DNA during the cell cycle. Nucleolus- This takes up around 25% of the volume of the nucleus. This structure is made up of proteins and ribonucleic acids (RNA). Its main function is to rewrite ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and combine it with proteins.
Interpahse includes the G1, S, and G2 phases of the cell cycle. Cells in interpase grow and undergo the various metabolic processes needed for their functioning during G1, S, and G2. Mitosis has 4 major stages -Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase. During interphase, DNA replication occurs. After duplication the cell is ready to begin mitosis.
Remember: *DNA must be fully condensed in order to divide. * M Phase is made up of mitosis and cytokinesis. The mitosis part has five phases: 1) prophase 2) prometaphase 3) metaphase 4) anaphase 5) telophase Following telophase is cytokinesis: division of the cytoplasm, organelles and macromolecules. Prophase -DNA is completely condensed. We can see it…this means there are condensin proteins.
There has to be primers to start the synthesis at the 3’ end of the new strands. The RNA primers are later replaced with DNA. Leading & Lagging Strands DNA splits into 2 strands. The continuous strand (the leading strand), and the discontinuous strand (the lagging strand) that grows away from the replication fork. Death Cap Mushroom Transcription and Translation: mRNA is necessary to direct synthesis (transcription) of the polypeptides.