Vocabulary Diploid- A full set of chromosomes Haploid- Half a set of chromosomes Homologous- Pair of chromosome where each parent donates one chromosome to the pair. Meiosis- process of cell division in which the number of chromosomes per cell cut in half through the separation of the homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell. Forming 4 haploid daughter cells. All four daughter cells produced will not be genetically identical. Crossing over- When the pair of homologous chromosome exchange a portion of their chromatids, which allows genetic information to be transferred.
The first step of DNA replication is the unwinding of the two individual strands of DNA that are together in a structure that is known as a “double helix”, a term coined by Watson and Crick, who founded the first original model of DNA. The enzyme that is used to split the two strands is called helicase, and the splitting process starts in a place called the “origin of replication”. After each separate DNA strand has successfully unwound, the bases that are present on the strands are now exposed, and unpaired. The enzymes then match the bases with the free nucleotide triphosphates. The bases used in DNA replication are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C).
LEU 6. In Henry’s other CYP2C9 gene, the 430th nucleotide had changed from a cytosine (C) to a thymine (T). This mutation converts a CGT triplet code in the coding strand of the DNA molecule to TGT. Beginning with this triplet code on the DNA, describe the effect that this change would have on the following: a. The nucleotide sequence on the template strand of the gene.
This is the restriction enzyme and acts as “molecular scissors” cuts the two DNA chains at a specific area in the genome so that sections of DNA can be supplemented or detached. A piece of RNA known as guide RNA is the second key molecule. This consists of pre-designed RNA quite small in length sequence, consisting of about 20 bases, positioned within a longer RNA scaffold. The scaffold binds to DNA and the pre-designed sequence ‘guides’ Cas9 to the right part of the genome. ensuring that the Cas9 enzyme intersects at the right point in the genome.
The number of chromosomes does not change in mitosis. Prior to the beginning of mitosis, the DNA of the cell is replicated in S phase of interphase. In G2 of interphase, the DNA of the cell begins condensing (becoming tightly packaged), in order to be ready for mitosis. However, the chromosomes cannot yet be seen in G2. Remember: *DNA must be fully condensed in order to divide.
RNA primase lays the beginning for DNA Primase to begin laying down the nucleobases: Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine. 3. Okazaki fragment from RNA primase a segment of the lagging strand during replication. 4. DNA ligase goes over all the small Okazaki segments and binds them into a new strand of DNA.
Human DNA consists of about three billion base pairs and more than 99% of those bases are the same in all people. It is divided into functional units called genes, which carry all instructions, which make up our body. DNA is contained in the blood, semen, hair, skin cells, tissues, organs, muscle, brain cells, bone, teeth, saliva, mucus, perspiration, fingernails, urine, faces etc. Although human DNA is 99% to 99.9% identical from one individual to the next, DNA identification methods use the unique DNA to generate a unique pattern for every individual. Several repetitive sequences occur in DNA and their sequence is unique to each individual.
Basically, DNA controls protein synthesis. The complex and precise process of protein synthesis begins within a gene, which is a distinct portion of a cell's DNA. DNA is a nucleic acid which is made up of repeating monomers, called nucleotides, and in the case of DNA, these individual monomers consist of a pentose sugar, a phosphoric acid and four bases known as adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. DNA is a double stranded polymer, which has a twisted ladder like
Transgenesis and Cloning Transgenesis is the process of inserting a gene from one source into a living organism that would not normally contain the inserted gene. The gene can come from the same species (called Cisgenesis) or from a different species entirely. To facilitate the transfer of genes from one organism to another, often a Transgenic Organism with Recombinant DNA is created: -The first step in creating an organism capable of carrying out the transformation process is to isolate the required gene. This is done so using Restriction Enzymes, which target a specific gene sequence. The gene is often cut with staggered ends, called “Sticky Ends” which only allow specific and complementary gene sequences bond by base pairing.
After duplication the cell is ready to begin mitosis. More, cells undergo prophase, Prophase is the first phase of mitosis. The DNA and proteins start to condense. The two centrioles move toward the opposite end of the cell as the chromosomes become visible. The nuclear envelope and nucleolus also start to break up.