Aurora kinases are involved in this checkpoint function. These kinases are only expressed during mitosis and overexpressed in a wide range of tumours. Aurora A is thought to play a role in regulating centrosome function. At the spindle checkpoint, Aurora B plays an essential role in recruiting proteins such as baba1 to the kinetechores. This promotes chromosome alignemtne, and ensures each daughter cell receives the correct number of chromosomes, The eukaryotic cell cycle is divided into several phases - G1, S, G2 and M. Chromosomal DNA replication takes place during S phase, whereas cell division (mitosis and cytokinesis) occurs
It contains genes, passed on from our parents, which construct our distinct features, e.g. Eye Colour, Hair Colour, Skin Colour etc. DNA must replicate in order to pass on the Genomes, the way this replication occurs is one DNA strand must act like a template and then it is copied to create a new strand which is an exact copy of the template. Protein is created by the information stored inside each gene’s DNA. The information is transferred to a molecule called Ribonucleic Acid (RNA).
2. Copy the table and match the following terms with their definitions: Gene, traits, chromosome, DNA, Genetics, Asexual reproduction, Meiosis, homozygous, heterozygous, allele, phenotype, genotype Term Definition traits Characteristics passed from parents to offspring chromosomes Thread like structures in the nucleus which carry the genes. allele Alternative forms of a gene Gene A part of a chromosome that carries an instruction homozygous Pure breeding for a characteristic eg: TT for tall DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid Genetics Study of Heredity Phenotype The appearance of an individual Geneotype The alleles an individual has for a particular gene. meiosis Two cell divisions resulting in sex cells that contain half the normal number of chromosomes Asexual Formation of new individuals without the production of reproduction sex cells heterozygoys Hybrid (containing two different alleles) eg: Tt (tall) 3. Answer True or False a) A chromosome is found in the nucleus of a cell.
When cells need to divide, the cells have to replicate and copy its entire DNA so that each daughter cell gets one complete set of genetic information. The hydrogen pairs that are holding together the base pairs are broken by enzymes, like helicase, and the molecule is split in half creating two strands. This process is also called the “unzipping process”. These two strands have to follow the rules of base pairing. Each strand serves as a template for the attachment of complementary bases.
Two b. Four c. Five d. Six e. None of the above 3. Assume that two strands of DNA have been separated and that the base sequence on one strand is A-T-G-C. State the sequence of bases on the second strand. a. G-C-A-T b. A-C-T-C c. T-G-G-C d. T-A-C-G e. G-A-C-G 4. The production of amino acid is coded by a sequence of how many bases on the DNA molecule?
Meiosis – The process by which sex cells (sperm and egg) are formed by reducing the number of chromosomes by half. 3. Asexual Reproduction – The process by which a single organism produces a new organism identical to itself; requires only ONE parent. 4. Sexual Reproduction – The process by which a new organism is formed from the joining of a sperm and egg cell; requires a MALE and FEMALE.
Besides, chromatin contains Histones (chromosome proteins) and other proteins involved in the packaging of the DNA strands during condensation at cell division (see figure E here below) and small quantities of RNA. aantallen chromosomen, chromatiden, zusterchromatiden, homogole chromosomen, ploïdie number of chromosomes, chromatids, sister chromatids, homolog chromosomes, ploidy Sister chromatids (with -tid at the end), are two identical (= exactly the same) parts (Chromatids) arising from replication of a chromosome. (In the figure here next the sister chromatids A1 and A2 are an exact copy of each other, as well as the set B1 and B2, whereas homologs A's and B's show small differences). These two parts retain the denomination chromatids as long as they are bound together through the centromere, which is for example the case during the entire S phase following duplication of DNA (replication). This connection is vible as a constriction during mitosis or meiosis.
Monohybrid inheritance Inheritance in general is the passing of characteristics from parents to offspring, while monohybrid inheritance is the inheritance for a single characteristic/gene. A gene is a length of DNA that occupies a specific position on a chromosome which is called a locus. A particular gene may have more than one form that is slightly different from the others. These different forms of genes are called alleles. Alleles therefore are various molecular forms of a gene for the same trait.
What is genetic engineering Genetic engineering: The manipulation of an organism’s genes. Genetic engineering is a method of combining techniques of genetics and biotechnology used to separate and join genetic material, DNA, from one or multiple species of organism and to introduce the result into an organism to change one or more of its characteristics. Recombinant DNA technology: The technology used in which a series of procedures are used to recombine DNA segments. A recombinant DNA molecule is produced from segments of two or more different organism’s DNA. Under the correct conditions, a recombinant DNA molecule can move into and replicate in a cell, either by means of integration into a chromosome or by its self.
January 11, 2014 Pgs: 250-257 AP Biology Meiosis and Sexual reproduction 1. Differentiate between haploid and diploid cells. Give one example of each cell. The difference between a haploid and a diploid cell is that a diploid is a cell that has two sets of chromosomes. On the other hand, a haploid cell contains only one set of chromosomes.