Biology Vocabulary Essay

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Vocabulary Diploid- A full set of chromosomes Haploid- Half a set of chromosomes Homologous- Pair of chromosome where each parent donates one chromosome to the pair. Meiosis- process of cell division in which the number of chromosomes per cell cut in half through the separation of the homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell. Forming 4 haploid daughter cells. All four daughter cells produced will not be genetically identical. Crossing over- When the pair of homologous chromosome exchange a portion of their chromatids, which allows genetic information to be transferred. Causes genetic variation. Synapsis- The pairing of two homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Occurs during Prophase I. Gametes- Sex cells Interphase- When the cell replicates DNA and synthesizes proteins. Prophase I- Chromatin condenses. Each chromosome consists of two, closely associated sister chromatids. Metaphase I- When the pairs of homologous chromosomes line up at the center of the cell. Spindle fibers attach to the centromere of the chromosomes Anaphase II- Sister chromatids are pulled apart at the centromere by the spindle fibers and moved towards opposite poles. Genes- Segments of DNA on a chromosome Karyotype- The number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. Zygote- Diploid cell resulting from a fusion of two haploid gametes, also called a fertilized ovum. Tetrad- When homologous chromosomes pair up. Chromosomes Each parent cell (sperm, egg) contributes 23 chromosomes. A body cell consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes. Meiosis 1 vs. Meiosis 2 Meiosis 1 replicates DNA while meiosis 2 does not replicate DNA Meiosis 1 consists of 1 cell with 2 homologous pairs while Meiosis 2 consists of two daughter cells with one chromosome from each homologous pair. Mitosis vs. Meiosis Mitosis forms 2 cells while Meiosis forms 4 cells. Mitosis forms

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