Beginning with this triplet code on the DNA, describe the effect that this change would have on the following: a. The nucleotide sequence on the template strand of the gene. b. The mRNA codon that results after this triplet code is transcribed. c. The anticodon on the tRNA molecule that is complementary to the mRNA codon described above.
“Both deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA and all types of ribonucleic acid or RNA are involved in the process,” (What Is Protein Synthesis, 2013.) Enzymes in the cell’s nucleus begin the process of protein synthesis by unwinding the needed section of DNA, so that RNA can be made. The RNA forms as a copy of one side of the DNA strand, and is sent to other areas of the cell to aid in the bringing together of different amino acids that form proteins. Protein synthesis is so called because proteins are synthesized through mechanical and chemical processes in the cell. Once the strand of RNA has been made in the nucleus, it is called messenger RNA.
DNA specifies the synthesis of proteins, However, a gene does not build a protein directly, instead it dispatches instructions in the form of RNA, which then programs protein synthesis. This molecular chain of command is from DNA in the nucleus then to RNA then to protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. The two main stages are transcription and translation, transcription is the transfer of genetic information from DNA into an RNA molecule, translation is the transfer of the information from RNA into a protein. Describe each stage of the flow of information starting with DNA and ending with a trait. Information will always start with DNA then it will travel to the RNA and then the protein.
When the MRNA and tRNA bind the amino acid is deposited and binds with an adjacent amino acid forming a polypeptide chain and eventually (after modification by other organelles) forms a protein codes for proteins. A piece of DNA coding for a protein is called a gene. When the protein is produced, we say that the gene is expressed different form of the gene are called alleles which are codes which produce different proteins that lead to characteristics of an organism in general. Proteins are the expressed traits of organisms. Sometimes single proteins other times groups of proteins which account for the phenotype of an organism All organisms begin life a single cell.
Cell division stops until p53 binds to DNA and repairs the damage. C. p53 is an example of an oncogene, and its expression causes uncontrolled cell division. D. activation of p53 leads to inhibition of the S-phase cyclin-CDK complex. 6. All of the following statements correctly describe M-Cdk, EXCEPT: A. M-Cdk causes the cell to enter S phase and begin DNA replication.
The second step is the binding of RNA primase in the initiation point of the 3-5 parent chain. RNA nucleotides are the primers for the binding of DNA nucleotides. The third step the 3-5 proceeding strand uses a 5-3 template is called the leading strand because DNA polymerase can read the template and continuously adds nucleotides. The fourth step the lagging strand reads the fragments and removes the RNA primers. The gaps are closed with the action of DNA polymerase and DNA ligase.
3. Describe each stage of the flow of information starting with DNA and ending with a trait. Information will start with the DNA traveling to the RNA and into the protein. This information flow will also be followed through the cell as it travels from the DNA in the nucleus, and the Cytoplasm, then to the Ribosomes and the Endoplasmic Reticulum, and finally to the Golgi apparatus, this system packages the final products for export outside the cell (Science Daily, 2013). Reference UIC.edu.
And that is about the only similarity they share. DNA contains the nucleotide T whereas RNA contains U. RNA copies the genetic information found within DNA and uses it to assemble protein, as well as ribosomes. Therefore, RNA is a critical part in protein synthesis. It is directly involved in it, but DNA is indirectly involved in this process. Ribose sugar is more reactive since of its C-OH (hydroxyl) bonds.
Controlling the Code: molecules at work The lac operon 2. (a) Write a description of the role of the operator in B-gal production. • What is the operator? The operator is a segment of DNA located between the promoter and the enzyme genes. It acts as a switch by determining whether RNA polymerase can attach to the promoter and start transcribing.