Pros And Cons Of Genetic Engineering

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What is genetic engineering Genetic engineering: The manipulation of an organism’s genes. Genetic engineering is a method of combining techniques of genetics and biotechnology used to separate and join genetic material, DNA, from one or multiple species of organism and to introduce the result into an organism to change one or more of its characteristics. Recombinant DNA technology: The technology used in which a series of procedures are used to recombine DNA segments. A recombinant DNA molecule is produced from segments of two or more different organism’s DNA. Under the correct conditions, a recombinant DNA molecule can move into and replicate in a cell, either by means of integration into a chromosome or by its self. Transgenic: The organism…show more content…
Each genome contains the information needed to maintain and create the organism. The process of genetic engineering involves extracting of a small piece of cellular DNA, called a plasmid, from the bacteria if organism involved in the manipulation. A very small section of the circular plasmid is then cut out by the restriction enzymes which act as molecular scissors. The gene from the organism being modified is then inserted into this space and the plasmid is therefore modified. The genetically modified plasmid is now inserted and introduces into a new organism which starts divides rapidly. Genetic engineering in humans has been becoming more common and is being used for different medical applications daily. Genetic engineering is for example used to increase the levels of insulin in the human body. To produce large amounts of ensiling, these cells are contained and reproduced in large fermentation vessels containing the needed nutrients for growth and development. The produced insulin is then purified and packaged to be used by many patients including diabetics. The first genetically engineered embryo had its DNA successfully erased from the gene which causes sudden heart default in young competitive athletes. US scientists state that there were never any intentions to implant the embryo to create pregnancy but was merely an act of scientific…show more content…
This is the restriction enzyme and acts as “molecular scissors” cuts the two DNA chains at a specific area in the genome so that sections of DNA can be supplemented or detached. A piece of RNA known as guide RNA is the second key molecule. This consists of pre-designed RNA quite small in length sequence, consisting of about 20 bases, positioned within a longer RNA scaffold. The scaffold binds to DNA and the pre-designed sequence ‘guides’ Cas9 to the right part of the genome. ensuring that the Cas9 enzyme intersects at the right point in the genome. The guide RNA is specifically designed to locate and bind to a specific sequence in the DNA. The guide RNA has RNA bases that are complementary to the DNA sequence which is targeted in the genome. Meaning that the guide RNA will only bind to the target sequence and no other regions of the

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