The recency effect appears in serial recall tasks. Items at the end of the list seen to be better recalled than those in the middle. Earlier items are remembered because they have been transferred to the long term memory. Later items are still in the short term memory. A experiment was carried out by Glanzer and Cunitz.
Describe and Evaluate the WMM The working memory model, a theory created by Baddeley & Hitch, suggests that there are four separate stores in the store term memory. These are called the central executive, phonological loop, visuo spatial sketchpad and episodic buffer. The central executive is the delegator, problem solver and decision maker. This separates into two slave systems- the loop and sketchpad. The phonological loop deals with auditory information and preserves the order of information.
It is the system that you use to mentally rehearse information by repeating it over and over again, it is also known as the ‘inner voice’. The phonological store uses acoustic code to store information, but this information decays after about 2 seconds, unless it is rehearsed by the articulatory control system. The phonological store receives its input either directly from the ears or from long term memory, also known as the ‘inner ear’. The visuospatial sketchpad stores and manipulates visual information, input is from the eyes or long term memory. The episodic buffer’s purpose is to bring together all of the information from the other components of working memory with information about time and order.
There is an individual memory representation according to Adam’s trace based recall. According to Schmidt’s schema based recall, there is only one memory representation for similar models. 2. In detail compare and contrast paradigms used to study motor learning and provide possible explanations for the pattern of result. (25 points) • The main paradigms used to study motor learning are response variability and random vs. block practice.
More information about scoring 1. Match the structure with its function. Option Your Answer 1.1 Correct occipital lobe C. vision 1.2 Correct pineal gland B. secretes melatonin; involved in the body clock 1.3 Correct medulla oblongata D. contains vital nuclei for ventilation, blood pressure, and heart activity 1.4 Correct postcentral gyrus F. primary somatic sensory cortex 1.5 Correct parietal lobe E. body sense, perception, and speech 1.6 Correct vagus nerve A. controls organs; main parasympathetic nerve 2. Match the structure with its function. Option Your Answer 2.1 Correct thalamus B. processing information going to cerebrum 2.2 Correct cerebellum D. motor coordination, balance 2.3 Correct corticospinal tract C. carries direct orders from cerebrum to ventral horn motor
It is sub-divided into two other components, the phonological store (inner ear), which holds acoustically coded information, and the articulatory process (inner voice), which allows for sub vocal rehearsal (words you are about to say). Furthermore, the visuospatial sketchpad (inner eye) is responsible for storing visual and spatial information. In other words, it codes information in images and can create and manipulate visual and spatial images. Finally, the episodic buffer. This component takes information from different sources and integrates them together.
Outline and evaluate the working memory model. (12marks) Baddley and Hitch argued that unlike the multi-store model that has only one store for short term memory (stm), the stm actually consists of several complex and active components that all work together. In the stm, information is transferred and temporarily held before being combined with our long term memory (ltm). These different components all work together however, still store different types of information separately. For example, our verbal information will be stored in one component, while our visual information will be stored in another.
The components of the WMM are split into 3 main sections; Central executive, visuo-spatial scratch pad and phonological store. The Central executive is the system in overall charge which allocates information to the other subsystems. It is very flexible and can process information in any sensory modality. Also the central Executive can hold and manipulate information, and like other stores in WMM, it has a limited capacity. Visuo-spatial scratch pad is the inner eye, it is where you see it in your brain.
It helps the transfer of information from short term memory into long term memory. (Willingham, 2007) The brain also helps with problem solving and reasoning skills. In order for cognitive functioning in the brain to work correctly it needs to be able to transmit signals from the left hemisphere to the right hemisphere. When signals are received from the left side of the body they go to the right side of the brain and visa versa. The brain also helps coordinate movement.
Outline and Evaluate the Multi-Store of Memory The idea of a multi-store memory, was discovered by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968, and argues that memory can be divided into three separate structures; Sensory memory, Short-term memory and Long-term memory. Information is thought to enter the memory system through the Sensory memory, then passed on to the Short Term memory when attention is paid to it. If this information is thought about and rehearsed in the Short Term memory it is passed to the Long-Term Memory to help interpret information in Short Term Memory. The Sensory Memory, which is uses visual, auditory and tactile encoding, has a limited capacity however, and a brief duration, so for information to be useful, it has to be passed