In particular, modeling is complemented through the application of attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation (Engler, 2008). The theorists attributed for the development of social learning theory is Albert Bandura. Through his work, the theory developed from pointing as environment as the sole instrument to shaping behavior through the collaboration of other factors such as cognitive and behavioral factors. The interaction of the three elements provides the necessary process to advance social learning and personality
Unit 9 Assignment: Case studies of Emily and Mr. Smith Kaplan University School of Arts and Sciences PS 360- 02 Introduction ABA short for Applied Behavior Analysis formerly known as behavior modification is the use of behaviorism to modify human behaviors, as a learning or treatment process (Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2007). It is a science by which the basis of the analysis of behavior are applied consistently to better significant behaviors and in which experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for change in a behavior (Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2007). Behavior analyst focus on the observable relationship of the target behavior to the environment, and thus use methods associated with ABA to change said behavior (Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2007). In applied behavior analysis, all experiments should include: (1) one or more participants, (2) one or more behaviors (dependent variable), (3) at least one setting, (4) a system for measuring the behavior and ongoing visual analysis of data, (5) at least one treatment or intervention, (6) manipulations of the independent variable so that its effects on the dependent variable may be quantitative or qualitative analyzed and (7) an intervention that will benefit the participant in some way (Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2007). During this paper two case studies will be recapped, target behaviors will be identified, each case will be within a subject experimental design where the participant will serve as their own experimental control and for each case there will be a provided systematic approach to clearly identify the problem (in this case an appropriate, quantifiable target behavior that is in need of change).
Running header: Flashbulb Memories The Psychology of Flashbulb Memories Anthony E. McCaffity Walden University Cognitive Psychology (PSYC-8237-2) Instructor: Dr. Michael Durnam November 20, 2011 Abstract Thinking incorporates a vast set of cognitive processes employed to facilitate learning and the subsequent development of behavior. Cognitive psychology focuses on the mental processes utilized for human beings to engage and function in their environment. Memory is one of the cognitive processes influencing thought and mental acuity. A process of that includes encoding specific information to respond to a stimulus. Memory is also the process of simultaneously using newly acquired information to accomplish differing cognitive
Identify one of these two kinds of information.  (b) What does the existence of these two kinds of information tell us about memory?  7. In the Loftus and Palmer study on eyewitness testimony, the participants' estimations of speed varied according to the verb used. Outline two possible reasons for this.
One theory of motivation Bill Bailey might use is the process theory known as the Expectancy Theory. Kinicki & Kreitner (2010) tell us the Expectancy Theory was developed by Victor Vroom in 1964 to produce a systematic explanatory theory of workplace motivation. Vroom ascertained that the motivation to behave in a particular way is determined by an individual’s expectation that the action will lead to a particular outcome and it is multiplied by the valence (preference or attractiveness) the person has for said outcome. In other words, “The Expectancy theory holds that people are motivated to behave in ways that
So, by now you are asking yourself "What exactly is the Kinesthetic Learning Style? ", "What does being an Active Learner Mean?” let’s start off with what exactly is a Kinesthetic Learning style. The Merriam-Webster Encyclopedia Britannica (2014) says Kinesthetic is only an adjective of Kinesthesia and defines it as a sense mediated by receptors located in muscles, tendons, and joints and stimulated by bodily movements and tensions; also : sensory experience derived from this sense. To explain, the Kinesthetic Learning Style, "Learning comes through touching and physical sensation. Thinking is anchored by movement, and touch, often three-dimensional, and usually all or nothing type of understanding of concepts.
In the book Skinner (1957; cited in Pavio & Begg 1981) identifies what he calls ‘Verbal Operants’ further broken down into Mands, tacts, ethoics, textuals and intraverbals. The mand is based on command and demand with the speaker using a mand primarily for his or her own interest. This can be further explained as a request for something which is results in it being produced. For example, if a child wants a drink , it knows from it’s past experience that if it says ‘drink’ it will likely get a drink. The drink becomes the reinforcer.
Interactions between elements happen differently with individuals (Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer, & Bjork, 2009). Determinations regarding each individual’s concentration, maintenance, and response to processing styles toward retention and long- term memories can be studied. These types of interactions and studies into learning permits for identification of preferences, strengths, and modes of learning specific to an individual that effect psychological, environmental, social, physiological, and emotional factors (Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer, & Bjork, 2009). The purpose of this paper aids in evaluating and describing verbal learning, comparing, and contrasting paired associate, serial, and free recall learning, and exploring concepts of mnemonics within recalling verbal stimuli. Concept of Verbal Learning, Curve of Forgetting and Three Verbal Learning Methods Herman Ebbinghaus is associated with concepts of verbal learning regarding his work with memory.
Another contribution by Chinn and Kramer to Carper’s work was the development of a “model that expanded Carper's work by looking at how knowledge is generated, transmitted, and evaluated”. (Zander 2007) The model is compartmentalized into three dimensions with each seeking to address a different aspect; “the creative dimension is concerned with the generation, extension, and modification of knowledge; the expressive dimension provides the means by which the knowledge pattern is exhibited and displayed and the assessment dimension examines the ways of knowing for adequacy of the knowledge pattern by identifying a process context specific to the knowledge generation in each pattern, and establishing a pattern credibility index”. (Zander 2007) To some extent this model will also be referred to when I go on to describe my personal reflection of what nursing is while relating it to
Perception The Role Perception Plays in Decision Making Tracey Redmann Axia College of University of Phoenix Perception 2 What is perception? Before looking at the role perception plays in the decision making process one should have a clear understanding of what perception is. According to Oxford Reference Online Premium (2009), perception is: The faculty of acquiring sensory experience. Study of the processes by which we gather and interpret visual information is largely the province of social psychologists, who have identified several general principles (‘laws’) of perception, and also some effects upon it of (among other things) motivation and attention. The former includes the phenomenon of the ‘figure-ground contrast’; that is, how we perceive objects distinctly from their surroundings.