Sparta’s power and influence had all but disappeared. With the destruction of the Spartan power at the battle of Leuctra the decade of Theban hegemony had begun. Leuctra was a defeat for Sparta, but it was not this military defeat which resulted in the end of Sparta. Thebes undertook several offensive actions in the Peloponnese during its leadership of Hellas. This resulted in the founding of an Arcadian League under the leadership of the new found city of Megalopolis.
The Persian Wars by: Alec Norwood World History Mr. Jordan 1st Period October 12, 2007 The Persian Wars INTRODUCTION The Persian Wars were fought between the Greeks and the Persians between the years 490 and 479 B.C.E. The main conflict between the Greeks and the Persians began in Ionia, home of Herodotus. Many Pre-Socratic philosophers believe it started because the empire building (land hungry) Persians tried to capture and bring the Ionians under their power and control. The Persians were successful with some of the Ionian Greeks but others asked the mainland Greeks for help because they did not want to be ruled by the Persians (Hooker, 1999). IONIAN REVOLT The wars began in 490 B.C.E.
If this were to have occurred then the Greeks alliance with the Spartans could have potentially been lost, as the Spartans may have withdrawn from the war. This would have had a significant impact on the strength of the Greek army as the Spartans intimidated the Persians after the battle of Thermopylae and they also had a skilled military tactics. Also by having Greeks navy roaming the shores of Athens it complicated the Persians tactics, as they were not
At the beginning of the period of interest, that is, the beginning of the 5th century Athens is one of the most powerful Greek city states attempting to gain support of other States. Through the Persian Wars they build up their reputation as a protector of the Greek states until near the end of the period where the Athenian empire is formed with allies becoming subjects to the more powerful Athens. Throughout this period Athens built alliances made enemies that led to Athens eventual downfall. The Ionian revolt in 499 BC can be seen as a first attempt by Athens to gain support from Greeks in Asia Minor as Athens provided assistance to the Ionian Greeks in liberating them from Persian occupation therefore allowing them to gain their autonomy back. At this time the Greek states were continually at war with one another and there was no unity between them.
Thucydides said that the Athenians returning home were deeply offended with this treatment by the Spartans and said it is not what they deserved. They broke the alliance with Sparta and joined with Argos and Thessaly, Sparta traditional enemy. Expedition brought a humiliation end to Cimon’s leadership and policy of dual hegemony. He was ostracised in 461 and during his 10 year absence radical democracy asserted itself. * Following this the radical democrats gained ascendancy in Greece and embarked on an aggressive imperial policy.
First they besieged the island of what is now Cyprus and then moved toward the mainland. They moved toward the epicenter of the rebellion, Lade. Once the leadership of the rebellions was apprehended, the leaderless rebellion was crippled. In a single day, the Persian army recaptured the rest of the rebellious cities and assimilated them back into the Persian Empire. But King Darius was not going to forgive the Athenian insult.
In the summer of 480 B.C a battle took place that would forever change the history of the Greeks and that would eventually influence the way in which the Western world looked at war. The Spartans took their stand against the massive army of Persians in a three day battle which resulted in the Persians taking the win but may have very well led to the Greeks winning the Greco-Persian War. A culmination of strong tactical skill and bravery contributed to the Spartans making a stand much longer and stronger than anybody could have ever predicted. The Persian king Xerxes led his massive army through the narrow mountain pass known as Thermopylae expecting no considerable fight on the part of the Spartans. The Persians bid to conquer Greece was significantly
It was fought at the pivotal point in the conflict when things were looking grim for Greece, with Athens abandoned and only the Peloponnese remaining free. The engagement was supposed to be an easy victory for the Persians: their ships were better-designed and more numerous. Their crews were also more experienced and better-trained. However, it was Greek tactics and Persian over-confidence that changed the course of the battle, the result of which was thought by many to be a foregone
Not long after, the Greek army arrived. The Persians decided they had enough of these Greeks and sailed home. The Battle of Marathon is perhaps the single most important battle in Greek history. Had the Athenians lost, Greece would have eventually come under the control of the Persians and all the subsequent culture and accomplishments of the Greeks would probably not have taken the form they did. However, the Persian were not finished.