His father was named Zichu – the heir of the emperor Chin Shaodi and the son of Prince Chin'an'guo. Shi Huangdi was an intelligent leader who accomplished many feats in his life, and has had a profound influence on Chinese history and culture. However he was also a despotic emperor who was known well for his brutality and cruel punishments. But, do we really know the history of Shi Huang enough? Qin Shi Huang’s greatest achievement was unifying China.
The Rulers of ancient China and its governments were greatly influenced by the belief systems they were based upon. Confucianism was used in the rule of Han Wudi in the Han dynasty and Legalism was shown in the Qin Dynasty by the ruler Shi Huangdi.The way that a government uses their belief system could help or hinder the way it functions and it could influence the way a ruler acts upon its subjects. Legalism was one of the ways Chinese rulers were able to unite and restore order in China. The Qin Dynasty and its leaders used the teachings of Shang Yang to strengthen their country and unify the people. The legalists believed that having an efficient and strong government would bring social order.
Many transformations happened during this time period. China transitioned from a Zhou feudal system to a multistate system; from an economy based on manorial management, to a market economy. The most significant development in this time period was a major breakthrough in the intellectual sphere, in which the Confucian philosophy provided an innovative reinterpretation of feudal ethics. Confucius’s philosophy emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice, and education. His ideas have been the basis of the Chinese culture.
The Qin Dynasty is well known for beginning the Great Wall of China. The other major contributions of the Qin include the concept of a centralized government, the unification of the legal code, development of the written language, measurement, and currency of China after the tribulations of the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods. The Han Dynasty emerged in 206 BC, with its founder Liu Bang proclaimed emperor in 202 BC. It was the first dynasty to embrace the philosophy of Confucianism, which became the ideological underpinning of all regimes until the end of imperial China. Under the Han Dynasty, China made great advances in many areas of the arts and sciences.
During the period of Wen and Jing emperors before Han Wudi, China was peaceful and prosperous -- population grew greatly and industry and commerce were developed. Han Wudi, son of Emperor Jin, carried out a series of reforms and devoted himself to military conquests and territorial expansion. Han Wudi's most important military campaigns were against the Hun, an ancient tribe that lived in North China who posed a powerful threat to the Han Empire. After three expeditions, Han Wudi finally drove the Hun into the far north of Gobi, thus maintaining the safety of the Hexi Corridor. In order to avoid the aggression of other nomadic tribes, Han Wudi also ordered the construction of the Great Wall.
On the class lecturer, we have learned the virtues of Confucius. The idea what Tu Wei-Ming mentioned about in the interview is similar to the “Ren/Benevolence”. This is probably best expressed in the Golden Rule: Do not do to others what you do not wish yourself. The most interesting I have learned from this interview is what kind of message did Tiananmen Massacre bring to us. How to use Confucian ideas of ethics to develop a stable society has been the concern of those who are power in East Asia.
Meanwhile, in China they were suffering from similar political issues. In China their bureaucracy was corrupt. The central government had been completely diminished. China was mired with civil war and intrigue. Bureaucrats were becoming more corrupt, and local landlords ended
Difficulty lies in pinning major influences of China’s history to one single era or dynasty; broader strokes seem necessary, with investigation into the early Imperial Period a clearer picture can be painted of how this impressive nation stood the test of time. Early Imperialistic religion and philosophy has maintained an influential role not only spiritually, but also helping to structure governing principles of the dynasties within this period; Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism have aided the people of China to navigate in and out of civil turbulence. Early political progress carried longstanding ideas such as deifying emperors and rigorous examinations for positions within the state; the evolution of a strong, tiered government and the development of Confucian practices as an influential basis of rule within society portrays the cycles of unity within the Chinese. Confucianism, regarded in its ability to structure the Chinese system of government, is centered in humanism, or the belief that human beings are teachable, capable of improvement through a strict upkeep of ethics and the enhancement of virtue. This prominent system of philosophy and ethics was developed by Kong Qiu during the Springs and Autumns periods, enduring thirteen years of traveling through the separate states carrying a message of reform to monarchs, hoping to alter the state of political and social unrest of the time.
The British government retaliated with much force, resulting in Chinese defeat, which then forth became the Treaty of Nanking. The Treaty of Nanking is labeled as one of the “Unequal Treaties” for many reasons. When Britain implemented the Treaty of Nanking, much of the life that China knew would soon be no more, the island of Hong Kong was forced over to British ownership and control, rights were taken away, tariffs implemented, and the destruction of Opium by Lin caused a six million dollar “refund” to England. Since China was a closed nation, with an old-fashioned way of life and military technology, this caused a great disadvantage for them, trying to fight against what British was doing to their country. China had no say or control to what Britain was doing to them, and no way of fighting back or retaliating.
Mao introduced the policy which characterized the rule of communists in the ‘liberated’ areas in the Jianxi and Yanan Periods. In 1950, reforms were implemented which forced the landlords to give up their properties, which could be redistributed to their former tenants. During this reform, many landlords were criticized by local peasants, denunciated, and subjected to public trials. Historian Michael Lynch’s book “The People’s Republic of China” states that “The evidence that subsequently came to light suggested that as many as one million landlords were killed during this early periods of the PRC’s land reforms.” This suggests that Mao forcibly extended his ideal and used the policy to control people to follow his ideal communist state. On political side, Mao exercised terror tactics to turn down every possible political party that could be threat to his ideal of Communism.