Strengths Lab report Calculating deflection of a statically indeterminate Beam under loading Summary The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the accuracy of theoretical calculation for deflection in beams compared to that of experimental procedure. Our findings showed us that theoretical calculations are an accurate method of approximation and also that deflection directly varies with transverse force applied. Therefore the use of theoretical calculations for engineering design is an accurate and useful and time saving method. We also used load cells to calculate reaction forces and moments. For the calculation of the reaction moment at the support mounted on an arm, the value for the reaction force is multiplied by the distance at which the force is acting.
All pipes, whether they be concrete, clay, PVC or other have a relative roughness at a microscopic level which contributes to frictional losses in the pipeline. It is important to calculate the frictional losses so adjustments can be made to the operating pressures to counteract the losses which are experienced over long distances. The calculations help better plot the actual velocities flowing within pipe networks so more accurate pipe size & gradients can be selected in practice. The main aim of this experiment was to investigate frictional head losses in rough and smooth pipes of varying diameter with varying velocities in order to analyse and discuss the finding of the experiment. Theoretical predictions were made for head loss (hf) and compared to actual ‘measured’ values obtained during the experiment.
Determine the required diameters of the steel shafts on the pulleys at A and B if the allowable shear stress is tallow = 85 MPa. Figure 4 5. The solid steel shaft DF has a diameter of 25 mm and is supported by smooth bearings at D and E. It is coupled to a motor at F, which delivers 12 kW of power to the shaft while it is turning at 50 rev/s. If gears A, B, and C remove 3 kW, 4 kW, and 5 kW respectively, determine the maximum shear stress developed in the shaft within regions CF and BC. The shaft is free to turn in its support bearings D and E. Figure 5 6.
Making the left side our positive direction, and our right, the negative direction was essential in proving algebraically, the results of the experiment. When we say, “balance,” we mean to say we will try to set the net torque equal to zero, Σ Ʈ=0, we want all the forces on opposite sides to cancel out, giving us an even leveled meter stick. In our experiment, we had two different parts, each containing three slightly different trials. In the first half of the experiment, we hung the meter stick on the 50.0 cm mark and placed different weights on different ends. We moved around the weights until we ended up with what we saw to be an even leveled meter.
The purpose of this experiment is to understand the uses and functions of various devices used to receive the most common units of measurement in physics for mass, volume and density. We were given a steel ball, a rectangular aluminum block, a brass cylinder and an aluminum annular cylinder to be measured by a vernier caliper, micrometer and weight balance. We learned the uses of the equipment and the values given through measure to obtain the significant figures needed for accuracy. In this experiment, we will take the average of 5 measurements to produce a value of great accuracy in which we will use for our final answer. We will then compare it with the given value provided in our Physics Lab’s manual.
Abstract on A.A Griffith, “The Phenomena of Rupture and Flow in Solids”, Retrospective Fracture Mechanics, Vol. CCXXI- A 587, October 21, 1920. This paper deals with the understanding of the formation and spreading of cracks or flaws in a material and their effect on its strength. The author looks into the intermolecular cohesion for an explanation for this behavior. The previous explanations on the effect of cracks in bodies stated that the maximum stress and strain in a body with cracks is 2 to 6 times higher than one without cracks, depending on their shape and nature of applied stress and independent of absolute size of the crack.
Mechanical properties such as the proportional limit, the ultimate strength, and the modulus of elasticity are determined for each specimen and compared. BACKGROUND: Strain hardening, work hardening, and cold working all refer to the increase in deformation resistance obtainable by loading ductile metals. A stress versus strain diagram from a strain hardened tensile specimen is shown in Figure 1. The specimen was loaded in tension beyond the proportional limit (A) to point B. The load is then removed from the specimen; the unloading curve B-C being nearly parallel to the initial portion of the stress-strain curve.
There are some losses from cycle to cycle, this phenomenon is called DAMPING. When it is at small scale, it's frequency can achieve almost equal as the natural frequency of the system which is frequency of unforced vibrations. Almost every sytems have multiple and different resonant frequencies. -In this experiment we found ourselves caught in several errors. During the experiment, instead of using tools or apparatus, we used our own hearing to determine the resonance by listening the volume of the produced amplitude, thus causing inaccuracy in recording results.
Since there was always energy loss in actual practice situation, the calculated natural frequency should be theoretically lower than directly measured natural frequency. In conclusion, this assumption as mentioned above would be proven by analyzing the results. Description of Apparatus Fig.1 A schematic diagram of the main apparatus. Figure 1 showed the plane view of the spring-mass-pulley system that was used in this experiment. As shown in the diagram, the apparatus consisted of a spring, a pulley, a mass less rope (light cord) and a weighted body.
Interlaminar shear strength of fi bre- reinforced com posites M. F. M A R K H A M and D. DAWSON An analysis is given of the stress distribution between two grooves cut on opposite faces of a fibre-reinforced composite when a tensile stress is applied to the ends. If this loading system is used to produce failure in shear, it has been shown that the fracture surface is always on the centre plane of the test piece. Hence, values of the interlaminar shear strength derived from this technique are found to be more consistent than those resulting from the widely used 3-point short beam bend test where the fracture pattern can be complex. Examples of the measurement of interlaminar shear stress for several types of fibre reinforced composites are given using the technique and analysis described in this paper. Several methods have been suggested for the measurement of interlaminar shear strength of fibre-reinforced composites.