These tests consisted of a wafting test, a solubility test in deionized water, and a pH test. The unknown’s characteristics, discovered through the physical tests, were then compared with known cations: Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Ammonia, and Magnesium. Flame tests were performed in order to classify the unknown cation. A small amount of the solid unknown ionic compound was placed on a watch glass. A wet swab was used to collect a small sample of the compound.
h) A way to make hard water softer is to put an sodium nitrate and create a precipitate to mellow out the reaction. Another way of making it softer is by removing the calcium ions one way of doing that is by boiling the solution to take out some of the ions. Conclusion: Overall, we determined that sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, is the anion that can be used to precipitate the most metal cations. Also, we learned that the anion sodium chloride, NaCl, could be used to remove silver ions from solutions. The stuff that I found interesting was that how many colours you can get when you mix the cations and anions
This particular reaction is a strong acid and a strong base which means that when the reaction reaches the equivalence point, the moles of the acid and the base are equal and the solution is neutral so the pH should be around 7.0 depending on the final volume of each solution. To get this data, we will titrate an HCl solution with NaOH solution of which is a known concentration. We will record the initial and final reading of the NaOH while we record the pH of the titrated solution in the beaker. We will repeat this process with a solution of acetic acid which is a weak acid with NaOH and record the initial and final reading of NaOH and the pH of the solution in the beaker. Procedure Preview Calibrate the pH meter.
The test for Sodium Bicarbonate included mixing that with HCl. After doing this experiment bubbles would form in the solution. This was CO2 being released. This reaction is a way of testing for Sodium Bicarbonate. BACKGROUND: For these experiments a 96-well plate was used.
Lesson written by Carolina Sylvestri Experiment: Reaction Between Ions in Aqueous Solutions The Monster Mash Background: Ionic solids dissolve in water to form aqueous solutions which conduct electricity. These solutions contain both positive and negative ions in such numbers that their net electric charge is zero. In this experiment, you will mix various ionic solutions, two at a time, to determine which combinations form precipitates. Knowing which ions are present makes it possible to deduce which of the possible ion combinations are responsible for the precipitates. From your data table, it will then be possible to generate a solubility table.
How do you go from calculated/measured values to accomplishing stated purpose? (4 pts) The purpose of this lab is to determine the exact concentration of an unknown acetic acid solution. Titrations for two different reactions will be performed. Controlled volumes of one reagent are added to a flask containing the other reagent until the equivalence point of the reaction is reached, one between sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) and the other between NaOH and acetic acid (CH3COOH). NaOH (aq) + KHP (aq) —› Na+ (aq) + K + (aq) + P2- (aq) + H2O (l) NaOH (aq) + CH3COOH (aq) —› Na+ (aq) + CH3COO- (aq) + H2O (l) The titration of NaOH with KHP will identify the concentration of the NaOH provided.
The change in enthalpy relies on the concentration of the salt solution, because different concentrations will produce different enthalpies. There is an equation to determine how much of this heat energy is lost or gained when a reaction is performed. Q = c m (T1-T2) Where: q is the energy in Joules C is the heat capacity, measured in joules per gram per degree Celsius M is the mass of the solution, measured in grams J is the joules G is the grams of water T is the temperature ΔH=ΔE + PΔV = (q p +w) – w = q p Procedure: 1. Follow instructions 1-9 in Appendix A-1 to initialize the MeasureNet workstation. a.
Halides Lab: Background information: Halide ions are reactive and useful. Salts are positively charged ions (metals) combined with any negative ions (nonmetal), and when placed in a solution (water) it separates into the cations and anions that made it up. The Purpose of this lab is to find out how the Halides react with the indicators, and to determine the identity of the two unknown solutions (A and B). Color of solutions prior to experiment: NaF | NaCI | KBr | KI | Unknown A | Unknown B | clear | clear | clear | clear | clear | clear | Color of indicator prior to experiment: 5% Bleach (NaOCI) | 0.2 M Na2S2O3 | 0.1 M AgNO3 | 0.5 M Ca(NO3)2 | clear | clear | clear | clear | Halide solutions | NaF | NaCI | KBr | KI | unknown A | unknown B | Test 1: Ca(NO3)2 | Cloudy White (Nothing) | Clear | Nothing | light yellow (Nothing) | Nothing | Nothing | Test 2, Part A: AgNO3 | clear (Nothing) | Milky White | Gold (Cloudy yellow) | milky green (Cloudy yellow) | turned white, film developed on top layer | Milky | Test 2, Part B: add Na2S2O3 to test tube from part A | Dark Orange/brown | Clear | Dark Gold(precipitate yellow then clear) | milky green (no change) | white precipitation, settled on bottom | Milky | Test 3: NaOCI (Bleach) | Clear (Nothing) | Nothing | Nothing | Orange (Clear) | Nothing | Orange | Unknown A is identified as NaCI (Sodium Chloride), because in test#1 the solution turned a cloudy white color when Ca(NO3)2 (Calcium nitrate) was added. In the first part of test#2, when AgNO3 (Silver nitrate) is added, the solution turned white, with a thin layer of film developing on the surface.
Liquids and Solids Purpose: The goal of this experiment is to be able to identify melting/boiling points of substances. We can then use these methods to identify unknown substances because of constants in melting/boiling points. Procedure: 1. Boiling Point a. Begin by adding 1 mL of rubbing alcohol to test tube and attach a thermometer to it.