Unit 5c-Hsc 2028 Move and Position Individuals in Accordance with Their Plan of Care

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1. Understand anatomy and physiology in relation to moving and positioning individuals 1.1 Outline the anatomy and physiology of the human body in relation to the importance of correct moving and positioning of individuals: Muscles: - It is important to move an individual’s limbs safely, avoiding pushing or pulling roughly, as this may cause tendons and muscles to contract too strongly, overstretching or tearing them and causing strains. Joints: - Sprains may also occur in the ligaments, when a joint is forced either out of its normal movement range. There are three different types of joint: - Fixed joints, which have no movement (e.g. in the skull) - Cartilaginous joints, which have small amounts of movement (e.g. between the vertebrae) - Synovial joints, which have a lot of movement as they are held in place by muscles and ligaments. There are four types of synovial joints; ball and socket (e.g. hip and shoulder), hinge (e.g. jaw, knee and elbow), gliding (e.g. wrist and ankle), and pivot (e.g. between the vertebrae in the neck) Bones: - Moving and positioning an individual in an incorrect manner can cause bone fractures (breaks). There are also several different types of fracture, which vary in cause and severity: - A “simple” fracture is the most common of these and is when the bone breaks cleanly. This may be caused by even small amounts of pressure when assisting someone or even when standing for a short while to transfer. - An “impacted” fracture is when two bones are forced into each other. This could happen when moving an individual’s limbs with too much force. - A jagged, spiral fracture is caused by twisting bones, for example when repositioning an individual. - A “compression” fracture means that the bone has broken into pieces, which could occur when something falls on the bone. 1.2 Describe the impact of specific

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