The Modified Mercalli scale allows scientists to measure the damage of structures from the earthquakes. The Richter scale allows scientists to measure the amount of energy the was release by earthquakes. Lastly, the Seismograph allows scientists to record the earthquake’s waves. I do think that these scales are reliable but I also think they can be totally unreliable. They could pick up something that is wrong or false and then we would not be able to reevaluate the earthquake.
A hazard is a natural event that has the potential to effect both life and property. When looking at earthquakes there is one primary hazard which occurs and this is the shaking of the ground. In addition there are many secondary hazards such as landslides, fires, avalanches, liquefaction and tsunamis. There are many human factors to be discussed such as preparedness, development level, land use and education and many other contradicting factors such as the tectonic setting and the time of year. To show the view that the impact of earthquake hazards depends primarily on human factors, I will situate the essay around some seismic events that have previously occurred; Haiti in the Caribbean, 2010, Christchurch in New Zealand, 2011, Sichuan in China, 2008 and Indian Ocean, 2004.
The point on the Earth's surface directly above the hypocenter is called the epicenter of the earthquake. The closer you are to the epicenter of the earthquake, the more dangerous and devastating. The severity of an earthquake can be expressed in terms of both intensity and magnitude. Although the two terms are very different, they are often confused with each other. Intensity is based on the observed effects taken place during the earthquake, for instance the ground shaking underneath people, buildings, and natural features.
The epicenter is located directly above the focus on the earth’s surface. After the fault splits, seismic waves which are produced of energy are released in all different directions. (United States Geological Survey USGS) Seen to the left are the epicenter, focus, and seismic waves. Smaller earthquakes that occur in the same location before the larger earthquake are called foreshocks. Unfortunately scientists aren’t able to tell if an earthquake is a foreshock until the larger earthquake occurs.
Volcanoes and earthquakes In the world, there are many natural disasters which occur without the human's contribution. Volcanoes and earthquakes are some disasters that have a huge impact on many things. These two types of natural events can compare or contrast to each other. These natural disasters have differences more than similarities. Volcanoes and earthquakes are different in three things: the geology, the process, and the effect.
The Great Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011 On March 11, 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake rocked Japan and sent a thirty-three foot tsunami raging down the coast to devastate their towns even further. To make matters even worse, the earthquake also triggered a nuclear emergency that has been compared to the Chernobyl disaster of 1986. (McCurry, 1) This earthquake was the worst earthquake in Japan’s recorded history. (McCurry, 1) It would not be surprising if people will still talk about it for centuries to come. The earthquake began off of the north-eastern coast of Honshu and caused catastrophic damage.
Index Terms — Seismic Data Acquisition, Earthquake, Accelerometer, ARM, ADC I. INTRODUCTION An earthquake is a natural disaster which can cause damage and loss of lives. It is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves. Degree of the damage caused by an earthquake depends upon the distance between the affected area and the epicenter, and also upon the magnitude which indicates how much energy is released from the origin to the Earth’s crust . Analysis of seismic signals is done by seismometers at monitoring stations.
The earthquake occurred in the backarc region of the convergent boundary where the Pacific Plate subducted beneath the Eurasian Plate. The earthquake shaking caused moderately severe damage, VIII on the Mercalli scale. The jolting movement of the seabed made the water rise and fall, which set off a terrifying tsunami. The fast-moving waves spread in all directions. They hit Okushiri less than four minutes later.
The actual speed of P and S seismic waves depends on the density and elastic properties of the rocks and soil through which they pass. In most earthquakes, the P waves are felt first. The effect is similar to a sonic boom that bumps and rattles windows. Some seconds later, the S waves arrive with their up-and-down and side-to-side motion, shaking the ground surface vertically and horizontally. This is the wave motion that is so damaging to structures.
Geology The Loma Earthquake 1989 Name Course Date due An earthquake is a physical occurrence where vibrations are caused by underlying rocks that are breaking under a lot of stress. The rocks are situated under the earth’s crust and are mostly caused when two tectonic plates come together, and pressure is created along the fault lines. It is then released towards the earth’s surface resulting in an earthquake. In 1989, the Loma Earthquake occurred in the region of the Santa Cruz Mountains that caused a total number of 63 fatalities, 3,557 injured related cases. It also destroyed a lot of property which is estimated to be about $6 billion.