Now just like in the first war Sparta couldn’t do it alone; so they asked the Persians to help conquer Athens. They asked their own enemy for help. This truly was a good example of history repeating itself. Mainly because Spartans defeated the Persians on land and Athenians defeated them in the sea. This time Spartans defeated the Athenians on land and the Persians defeated the Athenians in the sea.
The Spartans were really close to them on the other hand, this led to them having an open shot to Athens with little in their way. The Athenians had ships, but that didn’t stop Lysander from get into Athens and ending the war. xxii. The conflict after the war was mainly caused by the amount of power that the Spartans had. It caused Persia to help Athens for freedom and it also caused the city-states to revolt from Spartan control.
Herodotus accounts of the Corinth assembly speak of Themistocles pursuit of unity. Despite whole unity not achieved, the Greek force was extremely disciplined. Which allowed them to fight and defeat the Persians as a unified force? The Persians did not have unity- Herodotus accounts that in the battle of salamis- “Artemisia was chased by an Athenian trireme…she rammed one of her friends”. Morale The morale of the Greek soldiers in comparison to the Persians contributed to their victory.
But the Romans did not heed their allies. At least for a long time. When he finally did, and won a great victory against the Sequani, Caesar gave back the Aedui's independance. But the Aedui still felt hate toward the Romans and joined the Gallic coalition against Caesar. They fought a great battle against the Romans but lost with heavy causalities at the surrender of Vercingetorix at Alesia.
Themistocles played an essential role in the Persian wars and was a key factor to Greek victory in these wars. He made this impact through his pre-war efforts, his leadership skills and his intelligence in tactics which is shown during the battle of Salamis. During his pre-war years, Themistocles came to the realisation that if Athens was to suceed in it's war efforts against Persia then it would need to greatly focus on the improval of it's naval force. Unsurprisingly, however, most Athenians disagreed with this idea as it would result in a weakened land military force and less money to the citizens of Athens. In order to persuade his fellow Athenians to support his idea of a strengthened naval force, Themistocles resorted to trickery.
One of the main causes of the war lasting so long was the failure of the Schlieffen plan. This was due to the Belgians putting up a fight that was not expected by the Germans and the British, honouring the 75 year old, ‘Treaty of London’, came to the aid of Belgium. Also, the Russians built up their army quicker than expected and forced Germany to split her forces and fight a war on both the eastern and western front. This was very important because Germany was not prepared for this war on two fronts. The Schlieffen plan predicted a quick victory over France within six weeks, which was the estimated time it would take Russia to fully mobilise.
Reasons for Greek Victory at the Battle of Marathon There are a number of reasons that contributed to the Greek victory in the Battle of Marathon. The Greeks knowledge of their landforms, the superior weapons and armour of the Greeks, superior strategies and tactics, the absence of the Persian cavalry and the leadership and role of Miltiades all contributed to the defeat of the Persians at the Battle of Marathon. One of the major reasons for the Greek victory at Marathon was the knowledge the Greeks had of their land and the way they used it against the weaknesses of the Persian army. The Athenians took up a position in the foothills of Mount Agriliki at the southern end of the plain, barring the way to Athens. Here they were joined by a group of 1000 hoplites from the Boeotian town of Plateau.
ABDALLA EL MASSRY GRADE 9 A When scout initially informed Xerxes of the size of the Greek force, and the Spartans who were performing their preparations,Xerxes found the reports laughable. Not understanding the significance of the Spartan preparations as the action of men with the resolution to fight to the end,he expected the force to break up at any moment and waited four days for the Greek force to retreat.When they did not,he became frustrated by what he concluded as foolish impudence on the part of the small Greek force.On the fifth day Xerxes orderd his troops to pass. The Greeks deployed themselves in a phalanx,a wall of
The long kept system unravelled after defeat at the battle of Leuctra in 371 BC. The Composition of the Army The Kings and Leadership Sparta was ruled by two kings, and originally both of them led the army to war. Problems arose and the policy was changed so that only one king went campaigning at a time, the other remaining in Sparta. The general-king held supreme command of the army and had the right to declare war and make all decisions in battle. However, he had to be wise with his power, as authoritative officials called ephors followed him to act as advisors and watch that he behaved responsibly and fairly.
The Spartans pretended to flee from the Persian shields only to turn at the right moment and inflict serious losses on the Persian army. The Spartans maintained their supremacy in warfare until the battle of Leuktra in 371 BC, which was a major factor in the decline of Sparta.The Spartans were defeated in the Battle of Lauctra by the great general and strategist Epaminondas of Thebes. His tactic of using and echelon formation with the leading side loaded up with his best troops and in very deep formation allowed him to break the unbreakable, the Spartan hoplite line crumbled. G.L. Cawkwell, a modern historian, argues that Sparta's defeat a Leauctra highlights the failure of its social system - its narrowness and emphasis on