Respiration and Urinary System

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Module 05 Written Assignment – Respiration and Urinary System 1. Atmospheric air takes a specific pathway from the external environment to our internal lungs. Describe this pathway starting with external nares to the alveoli. What role does the trachea and surfactant play within the respiratory system? Air enters the respiratory system through the nostrils and mouth (External nares) Then the air goes through the larynx and trachea, which is a tube that enters the chest cavity. Then the trachea splits into two tubes, bronchi, which split further into bronchial tubes. Bronchial tubes lead further to the lungs, where they divide in many smaller tubes which connect to tiny sacs called alveoli. The trachea and surfactant perform there function of preparing the air to enter the lungs through cleaning the air and warming it up. (Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, Chapter 15, 504-511) 2. Gas exchange within the lungs and body tissues is vital for life to exist. Briefly explain the gas exchange that occurs in the lung tissue and body tissue for oxygen and carbon dioxide. What is the driving force for this movement of gas (think concentration gradient)? Finally, how does carbon monoxide disrupt the process of oxygen transport? The oxygen diffuses in alveoli through capillaries and goes into the arterial blood. The waste-rich blood from veins, containing carbon dioxide releases carbon dioxide into alveoli. The carbon dioxide follows the same path out of the lungs. The diaphragm is essential for the gas exchange process. The diaphragm pumps carbon dioxide out to the lungs and pumps oxygen in the lungs. When the diaphragm relaxes, carbon dioxide releases from the lungs. When the diaphragm contracts, oxygen is pulled into the lungs. (Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, Chapter 15, 514, 518-521) 3. One of the kidney’s main roles is elimination of

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