P4 Roll of Energy in the Body

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P4: The Cardiovascular system The cardiovascular system refers to the heart, blood vessels and the systematic circulation (blood). Blood contains oxygen and other nutrients which your body needs to survive. The body takes these essential nutrients from the blood. At the same time, the body dumps waste products like carbon dioxide, back into the blood, so they can be removed. The main function of the cardiovascular system is therefore to maintain blood flow to all parts of the body, to allow it to survive. Veins deliver used blood from the body back to the heart. Blood in the veins is low in oxygen (as it has been taken out by the body) and high in carbon dioxide (as the body has unloaded it back into the blood). All the veins drain into the greater and lower vena cava which then drains into the right atrium. The right atrium pumps blood into the right ventricle. Then the right ventricle pumps blood to the pulmonary trunk, through the pulmonary arteries and into the lungs. In the lungs the blood picks up oxygen that we breathe in and gets rid of carbon dioxide, which we breathe out. The blood is becomes rich in oxygen which the body can use. From the lungs, blood drains into the left atrium and is then pumped into the left ventricle. The left ventricle then pumps this oxygen-rich blood out into the aorta which then distributes it to the rest of the body through other arteries. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ; its job is to pump blood through a network of blood vessels. The vessels form a circle, which starts at the heart, goes out through the body, then ends back at the heart again. The heart has two sides, the right and the left side. The heart has four chambers. The left and right side each have two chambers, a top chamber and a bottom chamber. The two top chambers are known as the left and right atria. The atria receive blood from the different sources. The

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