Urinary and Reproductive Systems Dissection Urinary System Kidney The kidneys are paired organs with several functions. They are an essential part of the urinary system and serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid-base balance, and regulation of blood pressure. They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood, and remove wastes, which are diverted to the urinary bladder. In producing urine, the kidneys excrete wastes such as urea and ammonium; the kidneys also are responsible for the reabsorption of water, glucose, and amino acids. The kidneys also produce hormones including calcitriol, renin, and erythropoietin.
Having too few or too many red blood cells can be a sign that you have certain diseases. The hematocrit test, also known as a packed-cell volume test, is a simple blood test. The test is done by drawing blood from the patient into a test tube. Once that is done the test tube is put into a centrifuge and spun in high speeds. This displacement causes the formation of three layers.
ACTIVITY 2 Studying the Effect of Blood Viscosity on Blood Flow Rate 1. Describe the components in the blood that affect viscosity. The plasma, red and white blood cells, and platelets cause resistance as they travel through vessels. 2. Explain the effect that the viscosity change had on flow rate.
| | Components and function of Blood Blood is used to transport materials around the body, and protect against disease. Blood contains plasma, a liquid that contains dissolved substance, cells and cell fragments. These include the following: Red blood cells | Transport oxygen – this cell in the blood of vertebrates that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues. The red blood cell is disk; it contains hemogbin and lacks nucleus, | | White blood cells | Protect against disease - any of various blood cells that have a nucleus and cytoplasm, separate into a thin white layer when blood cells are separate from plasma cells, and help protect the body from infection and disease. White blood cells include – neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes.
It is a series of physical reactions that transform liquid blood into a gel that forms a secure patch over the damaged blood vessel. Coagulation has three main stages: Formation of factor x and prothrombinase, Prothrombin is converted to thrombin and finally Fibrinogen is converted to fibrin. The clot is formed by these stages. It is then strengthened by a process called Clot Retraction. This is here platelets in the clot contract pulling on the fibrin strands that they are attached to.
BIOS255 BIOS 255 WEEK 5 Lab 5 - Lymphatic System & Disease Resistance 1. Describe lymphatic system functions. The primary functions of the lymphatic system are to drain and return interstitial fluid to the blood to absorb and return lipids from the digestive system to the blood, and to filter fluid of pathogens, damaged cells, cellular, and cancerous cells to help protect against invasion. 2. Locate each of the following lymphatic vessels: right lymphatic duct, thoracic (left lymphatic) duct, right and left subclavian veins, and cisterna chyli.
These four chambers are separated from each by various valves. The tricuspid valve separates the right atrium and right ventricle and the mitral separates the left atrium and left ventricle. Two valves separate the ventricles and the large blood vessels. The aortic valves separates the left ventricle and the aorta and the pulmonic valve which separates the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle. The blood vessels are a intricate network of tubes that transport blood throughout the body.
Microhematocrit Lab Objective: The objective of the micro hematocrit lab is to determine the ratio of the volume of the packed red blood cells to the volume of whole blood by evaluating capillary blood. Materials: • Microhematocrit reader • Lancet device • Lancet • Alcohol wipes • Sterile Gauze • 2 heparin coated capillary tubes • Gloves • Hematocrit centrifuge • Sealer • Biohazard bag • Sharps container Procedure: Capillary Puncture 1. Wash your hands. 2. Assemble equipment, put on gloves.
1. Describe in detail the CLOTTING process. When blood vessels become damaged, you bleed and blood fills the wound, the blood vessels constrict and blood flow slows down. Exposed collagen fibers begin the clotting process, and then platelets in the blood stick to collagen fibers that make up the vessel wall, which acts as a plug. Platelets then release chemicals to attract more platelets, which eventually forms a platelet plug and stops the external bleeding.
EPO injections. EPO is a hormone produced by the kidney. It regulates the body's production of red blood cells. In medical practice, EPO injections are given to stimulate the production of red blood cells. Athletes using EPO do so to encourage their bodies to produce higher than normal amounts of red blood cells to enhance performance.