Through apolipoprotein C-II, the mature chylomicrons activate lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Lipoprotein lipase is an enzyme found on the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of triacyglycerol (glycerol covalently bonded to three fatty acids). Triacyglycerol releases glycerol along with fatty acids found in the chylomicrons. Fatty acids and glycerol can be absorbed in muscle, peripheral tissues, and adipose, for energy as well as storage. The hydrolyzed chylomicrons become chylomicron remnants.
Hormones, internal secretions that help to control important body processes are also transported by blood to target organs. White blood cells are collectively called leukocytes and they play a major role in fighting infections and diseases. Blood helps to regulate the temperature in the body by absorbing large quantities of heat produced by the liver and the muscles; this is then transported around the body to help maintain a constant internal
Urinary and Reproductive Systems Dissection Urinary System Kidney The kidneys are paired organs with several functions. They are an essential part of the urinary system and serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid-base balance, and regulation of blood pressure. They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood, and remove wastes, which are diverted to the urinary bladder. In producing urine, the kidneys excrete wastes such as urea and ammonium; the kidneys also are responsible for the reabsorption of water, glucose, and amino acids. The kidneys also produce hormones including calcitriol, renin, and erythropoietin.
Once absorbed by the villi the glucose then travels into the blood stream. The glucose molecules are then transported by the oxygenated blood into the cells. In the cell it is converted into cellular respiration or ATP by the mitochondria. Cellular respiration is a process which requires oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide in order to find energy for the organism. The oxygen comes from the respiratory system.
These EFA’s consist of two primary lipids, Omega-3 (alpha-lenolenic acid) and Omega-6 (linoleic acid). They assist the body in many ways, of which include: * Hormone production * Functioning and proper development of brain and nervous system * Regulation of blood pressure and blood clotting mechanisms * The breakdown and transportation of cholesterol These lipids also play a part in the development of healthy skin and hair. (Rohland, 2014) Lipids are able to partially cross a plasma membrane by the formation of a bilayer. This layer covers the hydrophobic tail, which stays behind buried inside of the membrane, allowing the polar head to be exposed to and in contact with the water. Cholesterol helps to form the bilayer membrane that surrounds each cell within the body.
This amylase converts the remaining starch into maltose. Maltose and lactose are absorbed into the small intestine. Multiple enzymes reside in the microvilli that lines the small intestine: maltase, lactase and sucrose. They’re called brush border enzymes The brush border enzymes convert the disaccharides into monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, and galactose. The monosaccharides are them absorbed into the bloodstream.
o Carbon dioxide produced by respiration diffuses out of cells. Osmosis: - Water often moves across boundaries by osmosis. - Osmosis is the diffusion of water from a dilute to a more concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane that allows the passage of water molecules. - Differences in the concentrations of the solutions inside and outside a cell cause water to move into or out of the cell by osmosis. - If there is a higher solute concentration on one side of a membrane, water will move in that direction.
Bronchiole’s have small air sac called alveoli attached to them, which inflate during inhalation and deflate during exhalation. Gas exchange delivers the oxygen from the lungs to the bloodstream, and the elimination of carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to the lungs. Capillaries lie within the walls of the alveoli which make it possible to diffuse the oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveolus and capillary. The oxygen attaches in blood vessels and carbon dioxide is eliminated during exhalation. 3.
One example of where this would occur is glucose absorption into the blood. In active transport, once molecules have bound to carrier proteins, ATP binds to the protein and is broken into ADP and Pi. This provides energy for the protein molecule to change shape and open to the other side of the membrane. This moves molecules against the concentration gradient. ADP and Pi then recombine and cause the protein to revert back to its original shape.
As the acid chime enters the duodenum a hormone called secretin is released from the intestinal walls to signal the pancreas to release a bicarbonate solution which neutralizes the acid. 16. The hormone Cholecystokinin is released from the intestinal cells causing the gall bladder to release bile. 17. The hormone enterogastrone secreted to slow down peristalsis.