Unlike the rectum above it, the canal is liberally supplied by somatic sensory nerves, so that a poorly directed finger or instrument will produce pain. The rectum begins at the termination of the sigmoid colon about 12 cm from the anal verge .Two muscle bundles, known as the internal and external anal sphincters, participate in defecation. The internal anal sphincter is an enlargement of the circular smooth muscle of the colon and functions involuntarily. The external anal sphincter consists of striated muscle bands under the voluntary control of the puborectalis muscle. The rectum has the same innervation as the bladder; the hypogastric nerves innervate the internal anal sphincter, and the internal pudendal nerve (S3–S4) operates the external anal sphincter.
Tissues to tattoos Amanda Quade The reason that some parts of our bodies have simple squamous epithelium is that it is used as a filtration device in our body. The kidneys have simple squamous epithelium and so do our lungs. (Thompson, 2013) The reason that some parts of our bodies have stratified squamous epithelium is that it is water resistant. It serves as a protectant. In one area of the body, it is used to line the esophagus to protect it from stomach acid.
These glands provide a major shell of protection for the stomach wall and contribute to lubrication of food transport. The mucus produced by these mucus-secreting cells is alkaline (thus the normal stomach wall is not exposed to the highly acidic and proteolytic stomach secretions directly). o Oxyntic/gastric glands: • Located on the inside surfaces of the body and fundus of the stomach • Constitute the proximal 80% of the stomach • A typical gland is composed of 3 types of cells: mucous neck cells which secrete mainly mucus; peptic/chief cells which secrete large quantities of pepsinogen; parietal/oxyntic cells which secrete hydrochloric acid (gastric acid) and intrinsic factor o Pyloric glands: • Are located in the antral portion of the stomach • Make up the distal 20% of the stomach • Secrete mainly mucus for protection of the pyloric mucosa from gastric acid; also secrete the hormone gastrin and a small amount of pepsinogen o Pepsinogen: • Secreted mainly by peptic cells of the oxyntic glands, but a small amount is also secreted from the mucous cells of the oxyntic glands and from the pyloric glands (function is the same) • Molecular weight = c. 42,500 Da • Is inactive when first secreted into the into the stomach • Is activated to form pepsin: during this process, pepsinogen is split into a 35,000 Da molecule (pepsin) HCl creates an acidic environment which allows pepsinogen to
Respiratory System Function of the Respiratory System The function of the respiratory system is to transport air into the lungs and to facilitate the diffusion of Oxygen into the blood stream. Its also receives waste Carbon Dioxide from the blood and exhales it. The respiratory system consists of the following structures, divided into the upper and lower respiratory tracts: Upper Respiratory Tract Mouth, nose & nasal cavity: The function of this part of the system is to warm, filter and moisten the incoming air Pharynx: Here the throat divides into the trachea (wind pipe) and oesophagus (food pipe). There is also a small flap of cartilage called the epiglottis which prevents food from entering the trachea Larynx: This is also known as the voice box as it is where sound is generated. It also helps protect the trachea by producing a strong cough reflex if any solid objects pass the epiglottis.
The bag is then inflated until the air pressure in the cuff overcomes the arterial pressure and obliterates the arterial lumen. This is confirmed by palpating the radial pulse that disappears when the cuff-pressure is raised above the arterial pressure. The pressure is then raised further by 20 mm Hg and then slowly reduced. When the pressure in the cuff reaches just below the arterial pressure, blood escapes beyond the occlusion in to the peripheral part of the artery and the pulse starts reappearing. This is detected by the appearance of sound heard in the stethoscope and pressure at which the sounds are first heard is the systolic pressure.
Small molecules such as oxygen and carbon dioxide can diffuse in and out of the cells through the phospholipid bilayer; ions and glucose molecules enter and leave the cell via the channel proteins. Waste products such as nitrogenous compounds are carried to the kidneys and are excreted in the form of urine. Antidiuretic hormone, (ADH), is a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It is carried by the plasma to the kidney and stimulate the occurrence of water reabsorption. When the body is dehydrated, ADH is released, causing the collecting ducts to become more permeable.
Each renal artery enters its respective kidney at the renal hilus and divides into interlobar arteries. These arteries divide into smaller arcuate arteries and interlobular arteries. The smallest branches of the interlobular arteries are the afferent arterioles which carry blood into the glomerulus a knot of capillaries at the core of each nephron. The afferent arterioles are also lined with juxtaglomerular cells which help to control blood pressure.Each glomerulus is surrounded by a cup-shaped structure call Bowman's capsule. The blood pressure in the glomerulus is high enough that about 10% of the blood fluid volume is squeezed out and absorbed by the Bowman's capsule.
This is what is generally referred to as breathing. Internal Respiration This is the exchange of gases between the circulatory system and the tissues of the body. Cellular respiration describes the chemical processes (such as oxidisation) involved when individual molecules use oxygen, creating carbon dioxide as a waste product. The Passage of Oxygen from Nose to Lungs During external respiration or breathing, air is drawn in through the nose, where it is warmed, filtered and moistened. It then passes through the pharynx, larynx and trachea and into the thoracic cavity containing the lungs.
Human Cardiac and Respiratory Explain how each of the structures in the respiratory system are adapted to help in the process of ventilation The human respiratory system is made up of a number of different organs that supply oxygen to the circulatory system for all cells the cells in our body. It also aids in removing carbon dioxide from inside our bodies. The respiratory system structure that keeps us alive starts from the nose extending in a downwards direction towards our lungs, which are divided into the upper respiratory tract that consists of the nose, nasal passages, pharynx (throat) and the larynx (voice box), trachea (wind pipe) and the lower respiratory tract that is composed of the bronchi and bronchioles (airways) and the lungs, alveoli (air sacs), ribs, diaphragm and pleural cavity. Wexner Medical Center. (2013).
Muscle tissue contract to produce active movement. Neural tissues conduct electrical impulses and carries information. The protected regions of our body for example our kidney tubes, the lining of the ventral body cavities and the lining of blood vessels are called simple squamous epithelium, they protect regions in which absorption takes place or where a slippery surface reduces friction. Stratified squamous epithelium protects when there are severe mechanical stresses the lining of the mouth and esophagus are prime examples of the epithelium. I believe that if the cutaneous membrane was damaged it would heal in time after all it is our skin and we know that in most people it heals with the help of red blood cells.