The bag is then inflated until the air pressure in the cuff overcomes the arterial pressure and obliterates the arterial lumen. This is confirmed by palpating the radial pulse that disappears when the cuff-pressure is raised above the arterial pressure. The pressure is then raised further by 20 mm Hg and then slowly reduced. When the pressure in the cuff reaches just below the arterial pressure, blood escapes beyond the occlusion in to the peripheral part of the artery and the pulse starts reappearing. This is detected by the appearance of sound heard in the stethoscope and pressure at which the sounds are first heard is the systolic pressure.
Small molecules such as oxygen and carbon dioxide can diffuse in and out of the cells through the phospholipid bilayer; ions and glucose molecules enter and leave the cell via the channel proteins. Waste products such as nitrogenous compounds are carried to the kidneys and are excreted in the form of urine. Antidiuretic hormone, (ADH), is a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It is carried by the plasma to the kidney and stimulate the occurrence of water reabsorption. When the body is dehydrated, ADH is released, causing the collecting ducts to become more permeable.
Then the filtrate goes through the descending loop of Henle, which is permeable to water (water retained back), and then through the ascending loop of Henle, which is permeable to salt (salt is retained back). Then the filtrate goes to the distal tubule, which removes the wastes that were not initially filtered out of the Bowman’s capsule (hydrogen ions). From the distal tubule, it travels to the collecting duct (now called urine), which prepares the urine
Catalase is a substance which is produced by the liver to break down hydrogen peroxide. The reaction for the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide is as follows- 2H2O2 (liquid)—catalase --- 2H2O (liquid) + O2 (gas) Hydrogen Peroxide is a clear liquid which is commonly used as bleach and as disinfectants or antiseptic. Even cells in our body produce Hydrogen Peroxide as a part of the Immune system to kill bacteria. In this experiment, the effect of different concentrations of the Hydrogen Peroxide solution on the 2 different types of catalase given was investigated. The paper discs were dipped in the samples given, one being a Yeast solution and the other a Catalase solution.
When we inhale, the oxygen enters through our nose or mouth then it gathers it in the Pharynx (throat) then it is passed down in the trachea then it flows down your bronchioles and finally down the alveoli. Our alveoli are surrounded by many blood vessels called capillaries. Oxygen diffuses through the alveoli into the blood stream through the capillary and then up to the heart to be pumped around the body. Due to the thinness of the capillaries, this allows for a greater diffusion rate, due to the gases being able to diffuse quickly in short distances. Our diaphragm contracts (or tightens) when we inhale.
Khang Bui Test 1 Essay Hemostasis has three mechanisms to help prevent blood loss, which is vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and blood clotting (coagulation). Vascular Spasm is the most immediate protection against blood loss. Injury to the vessel causes smooth muscle to contract (vasoconstriction) to reduce the amount of blood flow through the area and reduce the amount of blood loss. Thus, the vascular spasm helps maintain hemostasis long enough for the other to come into play Platelet plug formation has three stages; Adhesion, Release Reaction and Aggregation. Adhesion of platelets is stimulated by the damage tissue; Platelets do not adhere to the endothelium that lines healthy blood vessels and the heart.
1) Coronary artery disease occurs when fatty deposits called plaque build up inside the coronary arteries. The coronary arteries wrap around the heart and supply it with blood and oxygen. When plaque builds up, it narrows the arteries and reduces the amount of blood that gets to your heart. This can lead to serious problems, including heart attack. 2) Coronary artery disease is usually caused by a build-up of fatty deposits on the walls of the coronary arteries.
| | | Lesson 6 - The Cardio-Respiratory System DefinitionsThe cardio-respiratory system consists of the cardio vascular system (heart and blood vessels) together with respiratory system (lungs and air ways). These systems work to transport oxygen to the muscles and organs of the body and remove waste products including carbon dioxide. The HeartThe heart is a double pump. "Oxygen-poor" blood enters the heart from the vena cava to the right atrium, and flows down to the right ventricle. The first pump pumps "oxygen poor" blood to the lungs from the right ventricle of the heart via the pulmonary artery where it returns as "oxygen rich blood" via the pulmonary vein to the left atrium.
The left and right side of the heart are separated by the posterior interventricular sulcus. The right side of your heart receives blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs. The left side of the heart does the exact opposite and receives blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the body. The Cardiovascular System works with the body’s Circulatory System and is responsible for distributing blood and nutrients throughout the body to maintain homeostasis. It then helps to pump blood around the body, to supply tissues with oxygen and nutrients and to transport waste products away from the tissues.
GAS EXCHANGE- Gas exchange is the transferring process of oxygen from the lungs to our bloodstream, and getting rid of carbon dioxide within the bloodstream to the lungs and out of our body. Gas exchange occurs within the alveoli which are tiny air sacs located at the end of each bronchiole. WHY DO WE NEED A LARGE SURFACE AREA FOR GAS EXCHANGE TO OCCUR WITHIN THE ALVEOLI? In general, a large surface area increases the rate of diffusion. Therefore, the purpose of the large surface area the alveoli have is to increase the rate at which oxygen is diffused.