Small molecules such as oxygen and carbon dioxide can diffuse in and out of the cells through the phospholipid bilayer; ions and glucose molecules enter and leave the cell via the channel proteins. Waste products such as nitrogenous compounds are carried to the kidneys and are excreted in the form of urine. Antidiuretic hormone, (ADH), is a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It is carried by the plasma to the kidney and stimulate the occurrence of water reabsorption. When the body is dehydrated, ADH is released, causing the collecting ducts to become more permeable.
Through apolipoprotein C-II, the mature chylomicrons activate lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Lipoprotein lipase is an enzyme found on the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of triacyglycerol (glycerol covalently bonded to three fatty acids). Triacyglycerol releases glycerol along with fatty acids found in the chylomicrons. Fatty acids and glycerol can be absorbed in muscle, peripheral tissues, and adipose, for energy as well as storage. The hydrolyzed chylomicrons become chylomicron remnants.
Which substances, other than gastric acid, are secreted by the stomach? Describe their secreted and physiological roles. o Two main tubular glands are present in the stomach mucosa: • Oxyntic/gastric glands • Pyloric glands In addition, mucus-secreting cells line the entire surface of the stomach (surface mucous glands). These secrete large quantities of a very viscid mucus that coats the stomach mucosa with a gel layer of mucus, often more than 1mm thick. These glands provide a major shell of protection for the stomach wall and contribute to lubrication of food transport.
Water filters from the blood through the kidneys. Urine is also formed through the kidneys (helps remove wastes). When blood enters the kidney from the renal artery, it moves into the glomerulus, where filtration occurs. This is where water and dissolved particles are pulled out of the blood, resulting in a filtrate, which is then collected by the Bowman’s capsule. The nephron itself will then restore the vital nutrients and water back into the blood, while retaining the waste products the needs to eliminate, through the proximal and distal tubules.
I am seeing the light the urinary meatus. Maintain homeostasis should be easy, because it is keeping your body on track (balance) but if the circulatory digestive, even the urinary system is exposed to any disease or condition can throw the bodies homeostasis off track and causes systems in the body to break down, even could result in death depending on the severity of the disease or condition. Maintain homeostasis is the most important when dealing with the body. This concludes our tour of the body and our fantastic voyage has now come to an end, great
Causes of Urinary Tract Infection Writers Name Name, Section No Instructor’s Name Date Urinary Tract Infections; Overview A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection involving the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. These are the structures that urine passes through before being eliminated from the body. The kidneys are a pair of small organs that lie on either side of the spine at about waist level. They have several important functions in the body, including removing waste and excess water from the blood and eliminating them as urine. These functions make them important in the regulation of blood pressure.
The production of creatinine depends on muscle mass, which varies very little. Creatinine is removed from the body entirely by the kidneys, and its level in the blood is proportional to the glomerular filtration rate. The serum creatinine level provides a more sensitive test of kidney function than BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) because kidney impairment is almost the only cause of elevated creatinine and it can be measured by jaffe method .The principle is Creatinine reacts with picric acid in alkaline medium forming a yellow orange color complex which is measured at 500nm. The orange color can be measured calorimetrically, where the intensity of the obtained color is directly proportional to the concentration of creatinine in the sample. Urea is formed in the liver as an end product of protein metabolism and is carried to the kidneys for excretion.
Background 1. Bacterial infections of urinary tract are a very common reason to seek health services 2. Common in young females and uncommon in males under age 50 3. Common causative organisms a. Escherichia coli (gram-negative enteral bacteria) causes most community acquired infections b. Staphylococcus saprophyticus, gram-positive organism causes 10 – 15% c. Catheter-associated UTI’s caused by gram-negative bacteria: Proteus, Klebsiella, Seratia, Pseudomonas Normal mechanisms that maintain sterility of urine a. Adequate urine volume b. Free-flow from kidneys through urinary meatus c. Complete bladder emptying d. Normal acidity of urine e. Peristaltic activity of ureters and competent ureterovesical junction f. Increased intravesicular pressure preventing reflux g. In males, antibacterial effect of zinc in prostatic fluid Pathophysiology 1.
Lipid break down, your body can breakdown triglycerides as a source of energy. If your body requires energy and glucose isn’t available your adipose tissue begins to breakdown fatty acids into molecules that your cells can use as energy. Lipid breakdown proves important weight loss. Your body uses energy from stored fat to maintain your tissue. So if you lose fatty tissue you lose weight.
(Ireland, 2012) Stated “Hydrochloric acid is one of the strongest acids used in laboratories and can be found in our stomach, as PH2. Mucus is what produces mucous cells which are often clustered into small glands located on the mucous membrane that lines the entire digestive tract (Stomach and its role in digestion). The Parietal cell know as oxyntic or delomorphous cells are located in the fundic, cardiac, and pyloric region. The epithelial cells that collects hydrochloric acid activates the release of pepsin for digestion (Stomach and its role in digestion). These cells are located in the gastric glands found in the fundus and in the body of the stomach.