Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter Reformation

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Protestant Reformation: Three things on Martin Luther: 1)law and grace—how it drives you to despair, 2) no one can be perfect, 3) throws out the idea of a Catholic church—no need for it, church starts feeling powerless PROTESTANT: against things that are in the Catholic Church, Martin Luther started Protestantism, ---Lutheranism/Calvinism is a sub sect of Protestantism -Everything is in response to one another -Calvinism: response, TULIP, Total depravity—we are sinful and nothing we can do about it, Unconditional election—predestination, saved or not, Limited atonement—cheap grace( drunk on Saturday go to church Sunday for forgiveness, Irresistible grace—if god wants to save you there’s nothing you can do about it, Perseverance of the saints—anyone who’s a Christian, once saved always going to be saved Catholic Counter Reformation: (in response to Protestant Reformation regarding Catholicism -The Council of Trent—causes political disunity, they all got together to talk about problems that Luther referred to, first discussed sola fide (predestination) threw that out, second papacy (priests) clergy needed to be dedicated to their parish and be celibate. 3rd period—are bishops divine? Does the Pope have all the power? ~Four accomplishments of Council of Trent: provided clear statements of the Catholic doctrine, defined Catholic moral norms more clearly, instituted similar reforms of hierarchy, and renewed emphasis of pastoral care at parish level Post Reformation European level: -16 and 17 centuries -religion seemed to rationalize actions motivated by secular interests -monarchies replaced by Spanish model that combined religious zeal and national power -new monarchies: Tudors-England, Valois-France, Habsburgs-Portugal/Spain -Spain and Portugal began the Age of Discovery -exploration of the New World same time as European political crisis from Reformation

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