The monies from these sales financed wars and expensive lifestyles of the popes, archbishops and bishops. Some one thousand years earlier, Augustine had similar reservations about the Catholic Church as Luther. He felt the Bible must stand as the ultimate religious authority, not the church officials. Augustine also believed salvation could be reached only by God’s divine grace; it could not be achieved through good works. Luther later formed Protestantism on these two central beliefs.
Leaders of the Church were given excessive power. This can be seen in John Cotton’s “Limitation of Government”. In power, magistrates would not tolerate suggestion of a separation of church and state, like Rogers Williams advocated in “A Plea for Religious Liberty”. Roger Williams was banished to Rhode Island for “heathen”. There was a synergy between politics and religion, as is evidenced in Nathaniel Ward’s “the Simple Cobbler of Aggawam”, in Puritan society.
During the early 1500s there were many things that brought about religious change in Eastern Europe because of Martin Luther in Germany and King Henry VIII in England. The motives and the actions of the two were different in that Martin Luther had an intention of bringing about religious change where as King Henry VIII didn’t, having defended the church’s original catholic faith with no tolerance of opposition to it, having caused a reform because of a personal matter. Martin Luther was a German Augustinian friar who questioned not only the practices of the church, but he condemned it for teaching wrongly which ultimately lead to questioning the entire sacramental system of Catholicism in relation to salvation. He wrote and published many pamphlets that elaborated his ideas and denounced what he considered to be false teachings with motives of changing the beliefs of many into what he saw to be the proper things that should be taught and preached by the church. The publication of Luther’s German translation of the New Testament in 1523 democratized religion.
There was another Martin Luther, even more important, Martin Luther protested and changed the Catholic Church in many ways. He taught people did not need to do certain specific things like paying for indulgences to have your sins taken away. He taught that you just needed to be good and
Northern renaissance mostly focused on religious ideas. They were more concern with reform the church and adopt the path of early Christian church. Jan van Eyck’s Ghent Altarpiece (closed), Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent and Rogier vander Weyden’s Deposition also show this concept. Also northern renaissance art artist were more realistic than Italian renaissance artists. Their painting didn’t have Greek gods but real people.
But did the people bring this on themselves or did they disagree with the reformations? The historian Ethan Shagan believes that the people stirred the changes-- they wanted the change from Catholicism and this is why there was not too much popular revolt. In his book "Popular Politics and the English Reformation", Shagan claims that to have written "a narrative which acknowledges for the first time that the Reformation was necessarily based, like all aspects of Tudor government, on the collaboration of the governed." However, other scholars believe that English citizens preferred Catholicism and
Renaissance Comparison Essay The indication of Italian culture and rebirth from the medieval era began with the transformations that transpired throughout the Italian Renaissance. Society was shifting and the modern world was at its beginning. Italian values and characteristics were transferred out of Italy and into Europe created the Northern European Renaissance this was the renaissance activity that was identified outside of Italy. “Renaissance” is a French word meaning “rebirth.” The Renaissance period started in the early 14th century and continued into late 16th century. This era is known and studied for great cultural changes, literature, art, music, and successes in Europe.
He believed the selling indulgences was wrong, and even the pope, Pope Leo X, did not have the authority to abolish sins through payments. Luther recognized that at this time, the Church was more focused on accumulating money than saving its people and spreading the word of Christ. Luther believed that only God has the ability to take away the sins of humanity. Martin Luther published his opinions in a document titled Ninety-Five Theses. The monk's writing spread quickly around Europe, and he soon posed a serious threat to the Catholic Church.
The Italian Renaissance marks the end of the Middle Ages, and was born out of a rapidly evolving society. The Italian Renaissance had roots in Romanesque and Byzantine traditions. The term renaissance means “rebirth” and marked the end of the middle ages and the beginning of the modern world. Many famous artists came from the Italian Renaissance, such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael. The Italian Renaissance laid the foundation for Western values and traditions (Web Museum).
Robert Fair ART 101 Module 1, Case When different eras in the world’s history meet with the same piece of art, there are no two pieces that are identical because of the time period in which the pieces of art were created. Although the Renaissance and Baroque periods overlap each other in the 1600s and both originated in Italy (however one in Rome, the other in Florence), both styles spread throughout much of Europe rather quickly. Before one can examine one piece of art to another, one must know what each style is and what each is about. The Baroque style used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, and music. Baroque originated by the Roman Catholic Church around 1600 as a response to Protestant reform in the city of Rome, Italy.