When conquering China, the Mongols kicked the bureaucratic elite to the curb, hired new foreign rulers, and eliminated the civil service examinations. On the contrary, the Mongols in Russia weren’t as strict and direct. While Chinese traditions were eliminated, Russian princes were allowed to rule and a whole new dual system of regional administration was set up. Another contrast is centers of power for each state. In China, the main center of commerce was modern day Beijing.
Ch. 13 The rise of the Mongols Nomadism in Central Asia * Scarcity of resources * Move around * Create wars or alliances with other nomads (higher during drought season) Mongols * Good horsemen * Decision making was public * Strong hierarchies and leader (khan) made decisions (public still had voice) * Slavery – POW or some entered willingly to survive * Tributes * Federations increased through marriage * Trade * Rose b/c nomad movement * Cultural diversity * Cosmopolitan group * Spread of other religions * Self-sufficient but still traded to get goods * Religion – Shamanism and heaven would ensure khan would rise above everyone * Iron – bridles wagons and weapons (got
The Rise and Decline of the Mongol Empire Temujin, better known as Genghis Khan, became a universal ruler in 1206 he then led the Nomadic people to victory several times. The Mongols ended up creating a great empire that spread from the Yellow Sea to Baghdad. The reasons for their success were based on strategy, tactics, operations, logistics and unconventional warfare. The decline of the Mongols could be attributed to its size and aristocracy. The Mongols had several advantages over its enemies.
The way they take out their enemy is barbaric because they display no mercy. (Document D) The Mongol surround the city with their army. (Document F) Battle Tactics When the soldiers have to go to war they are require to bring their own supplies. For example, they had to carry their clothing , food, water, and weapons. This process makes it easier on the leader of the army because they wouldn't have to worry about rationing everything between soldiers.
In 1180 CE Genghis Khan was elected as the king of the Mongols. Genghis Khan got control of Turkic groups near him. He eliminated all other groups that also wanted to become the ruler. By 1206, he had all Turkic groups under control. Some important rulers were Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan.
The lack of unity opposition possessed was a key factor in its failure throughout the period. Division in opinion and ideology were consistent problems for opposition, which only fully united in the February revolution. Even then there were still divisions in opinion, however there was one common cause to unite behind. Other attributing factors such as heavy repression by rulers, well timed reforms and the continuing use of military force ultimately meant that opposition to Russian Governments was rarely successful in the 1855-1964. The peasantry were consistent opponents of Russian Government throughout the period, yet were rarely successful in doing so.
The Mongols and Globalization The Mongol conquests effected peoples far and wide. The trade routes and the exchange of goods, ideas, philosophies, and new technologies changed how all societies lived, even the ones that were not on the verge of Mongol takeover. Just the fear of a possible Mongol battle changed the way a society went about their daily lives. The information that traveled along trade routes, such as the Silk Road, allowed societies to become more advanced and enlightened, even though with it came war and destruction brought on by the Mongols. The Mongol conquests of Eurasia allowed globalization to spread across the land, through the peoples, and on the backs of horses (Shaffer).
The Whites failed to work effectively with the Greens, led by Nestor Makhno. The Green controlled a peasant’s army, and wanted to give more political and economic power to the peasants. The Red defeated Maknho’s forces in 1919. The Whites also lacked support from many Russians, who identified the Whites with former Tsarist supporters or foreign invaders. This all shows that White weaknesses were key for a Communist victory.
It was by the help of his primary military strategist and general, named Subedei that made the Mongols’ military so strong. He was a master mind in every aspect of warfare. It was by his intelligence, and military tactics such as mobility, alertness, speed, high intuition and military strategies that the Mongols were able to invade so many lands. This also included the ideas for protective armor, and numerous weapons. When the Mongols would decide to attack, they would have probably raided the countryside first, since it was harder to directly attack the castles and the cities, as it would have been too time-consuming.
In China and the Middle East, politically Mongol rule effected who did the governing, and Mongol rule at first disrupted economies before facilitating trade on a large scale, and effected whether or not they converted to the Mongol-style nomadic economy. In China, the Mongols didn't trust the Chinese, so they got a lot of foreign peoples to come and do the governing. The great khans also dismantled the Chinese traditional Confucian way of government. In Persia, the situation was very different; the Mongols took the highest positions of government, but still gave the lower government positions to Persians. The Mongols didn't dismantle the Persian government; instead they used it to their own advantage.