Though the Mongolian expansion led to devastation in both Russia and China, Mongol rule had positive long-term effects on both civilizations that eventually supported their rise as political and economic powers in the 15th and 16th centuries. Under Mongol rule, the economies of both civilizations grew; however, they expanded for different reasons. Chinaâs economy flourished after the re-opening of the Silk Roads, while many of Russiaâs princes became wealthy because of their ability to manipulate their roles as tribute collectors. Politically, China and Russia were influenced in different manners. As a result of Mongol contact, China became unified whereas the trace amount of Russian unity disintegrated.
Lenin had a great impact on Russia and the Russian people with his range of policies and events that took place during his time in power. These had huge political and economic effects and had both short-term and long-term impacts. Even in exile, Lenin’s time in Germany did not stop him from organizing yet another Bolshevik uprising in Russia in October 1917. He put the Bolshevik Central Committee under massive pressure and their final decision to hold an uprising shows Lenin’s power and influence within the party. This was only a temporary victory for the Bolsheviks as they lost support of the majority of the Russian population.
Chiang faced many problems during his period as Nationalist leader, one of which being the insurance that all warlords were defeated, especially the powerful warlord Zhang Zuolin of Manchuria, and that China would be united under one leader. Additionally, Chiang had to deal with the treat of both the Communists and the Japanese. However, Chiang did pass many policies in his period as leader in order to stabilise the Chinese economy due to the vast inflation
Anonymous Person Mongol Essay Following the invasion of Mongols into Song China in 1260 CE, many aspects of traditional Chinese culture, such as the reordering of the social hierarchy and challenge to the Confucian way of thought, had been radically altered by the end of the Yuan Dynasty. The Mongol’s century-long interlude brought about many changes to China’s centuries-old social structure. Traditionally, artisans and merchants were looked down upon and placed at the bottom of the hierarchy simply because they conflicted with the Confucian way of thought with the aristocracy and the scholar-gentry resting at the top. When Kubilai Khan overtook the government, he promoted commerce and the arts, pushing the merchants and artisans to the top of the social structure, thus resulting in a loss of power for the scholar-gentry. His refusal, despite many Chinese officials’ futile efforts, to reinstate the examination system to administrative office, further weakened the scholars’ power by restraining their political involvement and keeping them below the Mongols in the social order.
In 1949, the loss of the war by the GMD wasn’t mainly because the CCP were too strong for them but because they had many flaws and corruption within the bureaucracy. It all began in 1911, when the Qing Dynasty collapsed due to the overpowered alliance of foreign imperialist armies, which caused their authority to decrease. Furthermore in 1916, consequences of the failure in democracy established by the GMD (Guo Ming Dang) were resulted in dividing China under the rule of provincial military generals otherwise known as warlords, and struggled to maintain power in China. Later in 1927 although the GMD managed to reclaim power and unify China under the leadership of Chiang Kai-Shek, not too long in 1931 the Japanese War broke out causing the GMD to lose power and authority furthermore at the same time this served as a chance to rise for Chinese communist party (CCP). Throughout the Japanese invasion in 1937 all over China, they conquered the military and economic strongholds of the GMD, hence coercing them to retreat back to their capital Chueng King leaving them politically powerless and economically paralyzed.
His unfavorable actions sparked local revolts; even his own generals refused to fight in his stead. Once Yuan Shikai died in 1916, China remained divided and the Kuomintang powerless. Sun Yixian attempted to reorganize the Kuomintang, but true authority and power was in the hands of the warlords – they ruled territories as large as they could conquer. The country was in a state of chaos. The Chinese peasants and lower class suffered the most.
CAC China Between the years 500 and 1750, China’s involvement in trade and decisions regarding global trade greatly affected their economy. China has always participated in local trade amongst Chinese societies, however new technologies brought change in the trading system and the people the Chinese traded with. There were also time periods of isolation from other countries that were established in order to have less western influence. Transitions with new rulers, advancements in technologies, and expansion of their empire caused for Chinese economic growth or continuance. Many foreign invaders tried to conquer the empires of China for thousands of years, one of which was actually successful.
War Communism was introduced as the focus of Lenin was on the military and getting supplies to the soldiers of Russia quickly. This was attempted by Nicholas II during the Great War but because of the lack of organised transport the food was just left in limbo and both Peasants and Soldiers starved. The main reason Government policies changed during Communism was because they were not scared to reform
(Matteo needed to include that urban workers were also heavily taxed; taxes were used to help finance the modernisation of Russia’s backward industry). A short-term reason why there was revolution in 1905 was the costly Russo-Japanese War. Because of the conflict, which Russia was losing, there was less coal to use as heating and less food to eat. This caused general resentment amongst the poor people of Russia who wanted an end to the war. There were countless protests against the war with Japan and news of defeat after defeat only angered the Russian people more as they wanted a change in government.
Assess the causes of the victory of the CCP in the Chinese Civil War (1945 – 1949). Introduction The takeover of the GMD, led by General Chiang Kai Shek caused the outbreak of the Civil War in China in 1926. The purges began and in 1934, the Chinese Communist Party in China was close to complete destruction. But yet by 1949, the Chinese Communist Party led by Mao, (now considered as the world’s most lethal dictator), who was formally a librarian, had taken the whole of China. At that time, most of China’s population was peasant farmers in the countryside.