Tumors, scar tissue (adhesions), or twisting or narrowing of the intestines can cause a bowel obstruction. In the small intestine, scar tissue is most often the cause. Other causes include hernias and Crohn's disease, which can twist or narrow the intestine, and tumors, which can block the intestine. In the large intestine, cancer is most often the cause. Other causes are severe constipation from a hard mass of stool, and narrowing of the intestine caused by diverticulitis or inflammatory bowel disease.
Kidneys: A wide range of kidney diseases can occur in Alagille syndrome. The kidneys can also have decreased function. (1,3) [pic] One of the major elements of Alagille disease is malfunctions to the liver. Liver damage can be caused by abnormalities in the bile ducts. Bile ducts carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder, and bile is what helps to digest fats.These bile ducts may be limited and tight, so the bile gets trapped and will build up inside the bile ducts which prevent the liver from working to its best ability (1,3).
Atherosclerosis is a multi focal, smoldering immunoinflammatory disease of medium sized and large arteries filled by lipids. (Curtis M. Rimmerman, 2008) When plaque builds up the condition is called Atherosclerosis, the build up of plaque over many years.If the flow of oxygen rich blood to your heart muscle is reduced or blocked, Angina or a heart attack can occur. Angina is chest pain or discomfort. It may feel like pressure or squeezing in your chest. Pain can also occur in the shoulders, arms, neck, jaw or back.
Mechanical obstructions occur as a function of the body itself. Tumors and scar tissue can form from previous surgeries or cancers. Hernias, Crohn's disease, diverticulitis, inflammatory bowel disease and severe constipation can cause the intestine to twist and narrow into a complete obstruction. Blockages can also occur when the intestine creates an intussusception; a telescoping formation. Anyone with a disease of the lower digestive tract is susceptible to the possibility of obstruction of the large bowel.
KIDNEY STONES A kidney stone is a hard, crystalline mineral material formed within the kidney or urinary tract. Kidney stones are a common cause of blood in the urine (hematuria) and often severe pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. Kidney stones are sometimes called renal calculi. The condition of having kidney stones is termed nephrolithiasis. Having stones at any location in the urinary tract is referred to as urolithiasis, and the term ureterolithiasisis used to refer to stones located in the ureters Those at Risk: Anyone may develop a kidney stone, but people with certain diseases and conditions or those who are taking certain medications are more susceptible to their development.
One site being prerenal failure is caused by interference with renal perfusion, manifested by decreased glomerular filtration rate. Disorders that lead to prerenal failure include cardiogenic shock, heart failure, myocardial infarction, burns, trauma, hemorrhage, septic or anaphylactic shock, and renal artery obstruction. Intrarenal causes for renal failure are associated with parenchymal changes caused by ischemia or nephrotoxic substances. Postrenal failure occurs as the result of an obstruction in the urinary tract anywhere from the tubules to the urethral meatus (Louise Cole, 2000). Obstruction most commonly occurs with stones in the ureters, bladder, or urethra; however, trauma, edema associated with infection, and prostate enlargement also cause postrenal failure.1 Statistics In the United States, the annual incidence of acute renal failure is 100 cases for every million people.
A stroke can be hemorrhagic, ischemic, or embolic in origin. Hemorrhagic strokes occur when a cerebral blood vessel ruptures, resulting in bleeding into the brain tissue called intracerebral hemorrhage (Bauer, 2008). Ischemic strokes occur when a cerebral vessel, or any of the vessels that supply any part of the brain, narrows or loses pressure and deprives the brain of vital oxygen and nutrients. Embolic stroke is the most prevalent, and results from cerebral ischemia secondary to a blockage of a vessel by an embolus (Collins, 2007). Symptoms of strokes vary widely and are broadly grouped.
This is called choridal neovascularization. These blood vessels leak blood and fluid into the retina, causing distortion of vision. The dry form of macular can also lead to the wet form. Only about 10% of patients with macular degeneration develop the wet form, they make up the majority who experience serious vision loss from the disease. Macular degeneration can be passed from parent to child, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, and being light skinned, female and having light eye color are also risks for macular degeneration (webmd copy write 2005-2014, LLC) Glaucoma is an eye disease characterized by dysfunction of the ocular drainage system.
It could be chronic and is caused by the narrowing of the coronary artery and limitation of blood supply to part of the muscle. It also could be acute, which is the result from plaque suddenly rupturing. The inner wall of an artery is damaged. Some fatty deposits or plaques made up of cholesterol and other cellular waste products will accumulate at a site of injury in a process called atherosclerosis, the hardening of arteries. If the surface of the plaques break or rupture, blood cells, called platelets will clump or clot at that site to try and repair the artery.
In some cases gallstones may be removed to relieve blockage of the pancreatic duct. In the most severe cases, surgery is needed to remove dead or infected pancreatic tissue. Complications from acute pancreatitis include acute kidney failure, ARDS, ascites, Cysts or abscesses in the pancreas, and heart failure. Repeat episodes can lead to chronic pancreatitis. References Bare, B.G., Cheever, K.H., Hinkle, J.L., & Smeltzer, S.C. (2008).