If this fails, a pancrelipase and sodium bicarbonate solution may be instilled in order to "digest" the clog. Metabolic complications: Metabolic complications of enteral nutrition are similar to those that occur during PN, although the incidence and severity may be less. Careful monitoring can minimize or prevent metabolic complications. Refeeding syndrome: Refeeding of severely malnourished patients may result in "refeeding syndrome" in which there are acute decreases in circulating levels of potassium, magnesium, and phosphate. The sequel of refeeding syndrome adversely affect nearly every organ system and include cardiac dysrhythmias, heart failure, acute respiratory failure, coma, paralysis, nephropathy, and liver dysfunction.
What are the symptoms? The symptoms of lactose intolerance will occur after consuming food or drink that contains lactose, such as dairy products. The main symptoms include: Flatulence (Wind) Diarrhoea three or more times a day Bloated Stomach Stomach Pains Stomach Rumbling Feeling Sick Stomach Cramps What problems does it cause? Bone Loss/Osteoporosis - This is caused due to the lack of dairy products in the diet which are crucial for healthy bones. Failure To Thrive - Infants with lactose intolerance are unable to digest breast milk and may experience constant diarrhoea that can lead to dehydration and reduced growth and weight gain.
Pyloric Stenosis Pyloric stenosis, is a narrowing of the pyloric sphincter in which the muscles of the pylorus are thickened and twice the normal size. This prevents the stomach from emptying into the small intestine. Normally, food passes easily from the stomach into the first part of the small intestine through a valve called the pylorus. The cause of the thickening is unknown, although genetic factors may play a role. Children of parents who had pyloric stenosis are more likely to have this condition.
Like the lungs, CF also affects the narrow ducts of the pancreas, which secretes enzymes that digest food into the bowel, which become blocked by mucus. The mucus prevents important digestive enzymes from reaching the small intestine. This causes malabsorption syndrome. Malabsorption syndrome affects eighty-five percent of CF patients. Therefore, they require an energy-dense diet high in protein, fats, and vitamins.
Failure to do so results in their immune system producing antibodies which attacks the lining of their bowel causing them to have abdominal pains, constipation/diarrhoea, bloating, difficulty in gaining weight in childhood or maintaining weight in adulthood and anaemia. Because it affects the way their body can absorb nutrients it can also lead to osteoporosis and increase their risk of bowel cancer. Some foods can be bought that are labelled ‘gluten free’ but tend to be more expensive. • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is the term used to describe a condition when on inspection of the bowel everything seems normal, but the person suffers with symptoms like abdominal pain, flatulence, bloating and constipation/diarrhoea. The person may want to keep a food diary to help discover which foods make their condition worse and avoid them in the future.
There are many different kinds of life factors that effects. Life factor Cystic fibrosis is a genetic condition in which the lungs and digestive system become clogged with thick sticky mucus. This is caused by a defective gene, so this means that there i9s a one in four chance that their child will be born with cystic fibrosis. People with cystic fibrosis may have problems absorbing nourishment from food and they may also suffer from respiratory and chest infections as in the past, children with cystic fibrosis often had very short life expectancy, but now having modern medical treatments it has succeeded in extending it. If Sir Bruce Forsyth has cystic fibrosis it will: Physically Intellectually he will miss out on school Emotionally
For example, two diseases that develop from too little protein are Kwashiorkor and Marasmus, and too diseases that develop because of too much carbohydrates and lipids are Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease. When consuming too much or too little of a macronutrient it can also result in a stunt in growth, especially in children, a insufficient amount of energy, and either weight loss or weight gain. People also tend to gain a low immune system making them more susceptible to
This results in inflammation causing swelling, increased blood flow, and ulcerations. In Crohn’s disease, these ulcerations go into the full thickness of the intestinal lining. This may lead to a narrowing of the bowel, which can lead to partial or total blockage of the intestinal flow, called bowel obstruction. Symptoms of intestinal obstruction include cramping around the mid-abdomen, frequently associated with vomiting. The abdomen may also become bloated and distended.
Renal causes affect the kidney directly, they include sepsis (when the immune system is overwhelmed by infections which causes the kidney to shut down), medication which are toxic to the kidney e.g. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, and others) etc. lastly the post- renal causes include, obstruction of the bladder; the kidney produces more urine but due to the obstruction it acts like a dam instead of emptying and soon forces the kidney to shut down and kidney stones which only causes the disorder if only one kidney is present. The main cause of this conditions is the accumulation of waste products in the kidney. In some cases kidney failure can be treated and they can go back to normal
In addition, having this type of anemia causes the red blood cells (RBCs) to become hard and pointed. Since hemoglobin (found inside RBCs) normally carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, anemia leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in organs. As a result, the RBCs function abnormally causing small blood clots, and can get stuck in the blood vessels. When this occurs, circulation in the blood