Renal Calculi, more commonly known as Kidney Stones, is a common diagnosis pertaining to the urinary system. These stones are formed by small salts and minerals in the urine and are unable to travel to the urethra which can cause extreme discomfort. Some symptoms of kidney stones are frequent urge to urinate, vomiting, blood in the urine, and back/abdomen pain. The kidneys are a major organ in our body that continually filter and balance the fluids, although when minerals and electrolytes in the body become unbalanced a kidney stone will typically occur. Hypernatremia- is a high amount of sodium.
Hematuria may continue for one day or last several days. Urinary tract infections are fairly common and result from bacteria entering the urethra and typically infecting the bladder but may spread to the kidneys as well. Urgency and frequency of urination may also be a complication with the presence of a UTI (urinary tract infection). Kidney stones can be another symptom of PKD. Cysts may block the tubules and prevent normal drainage
If this fails, a pancrelipase and sodium bicarbonate solution may be instilled in order to "digest" the clog. Metabolic complications: Metabolic complications of enteral nutrition are similar to those that occur during PN, although the incidence and severity may be less. Careful monitoring can minimize or prevent metabolic complications. Refeeding syndrome: Refeeding of severely malnourished patients may result in "refeeding syndrome" in which there are acute decreases in circulating levels of potassium, magnesium, and phosphate. The sequel of refeeding syndrome adversely affect nearly every organ system and include cardiac dysrhythmias, heart failure, acute respiratory failure, coma, paralysis, nephropathy, and liver dysfunction.
Renal causes affect the kidney directly, they include sepsis (when the immune system is overwhelmed by infections which causes the kidney to shut down), medication which are toxic to the kidney e.g. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, and others) etc. lastly the post- renal causes include, obstruction of the bladder; the kidney produces more urine but due to the obstruction it acts like a dam instead of emptying and soon forces the kidney to shut down and kidney stones which only causes the disorder if only one kidney is present. The main cause of this conditions is the accumulation of waste products in the kidney. In some cases kidney failure can be treated and they can go back to normal
Fibrosis of the liver tissue can occur over time, and may lead to scarring. If the liver becomes scarred, the blood cannot get through the liver at the normal pace. This can create a higher than normal pressure on the portal vein, and this is known as portal hypertension. Some symptoms of liver disease may include enlarged liver or spleen, bruising or bleeding, nausea or belly pain, weight loss or poor weight gain, fluid pooling in the abdomen, and change in color of the stool and how often bowel movements
What are possible treatment options, and what is the prognosis? Treatment depends on the cause of the kidney failure. The treatment could consist of restoring blood flow to kidneys, stop taking medications, or bypass a blockage in the urinary tract. Dialysis and antibiotics may be given as well. According to articles online about half of patients with kidney failure receive treatment and are cured.
For example, coronary artery disease and heart attack, high blood pressure (hypertension), faulty heart valves, damage to the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy), myocarditis, heart defects you're born with (congenital heart defects), abnormal heart rhythms (heart arrhythmias), Other diseases. Chronic diseases — such as diabetes, HIV, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or a buildup of iron (hemochromatosis) or protein (amyloidosis) —also may contribute to heart failure. Generic name of medicationMetformin | Brand/trade name of medicationFortamet, Glumetza, Glucophage, Riomet
In the Hepatic system you have an increased risk of liver tumors and liver damage. The Musculoskeletal system you begin to have premature epiphyseal plate closures, increased risk of tendon tears, and intramuscular abscesses. Some Psychological symptoms include mania, depression, aggression, and mood swings. All the information was taken from Table 2 of
Renal causes may be due to reduced renal function. The causes are acute and chronic kidney failure, acute and chronic nephritis, tubular necrosis and other renal diseases. Post renal causes may be due to reduced excretion of urea. And these could be due to obstruction to urinary outflow such as by calculi, bladder and prostate tumours, or a severe infection (Bishop ML 6th edition). The main cause of uremia is damage to the kidneys, whether because of Bright’s disease (glomerulonephritis), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or some other disorder that impairs kidney
The symptoms of a urinary tract infection include cloudy or bloody urine, which may have a foul or strong odor, fever, pain or burning with urination, pressure or cramping in the lower abdomen (usually middle) or back, and strong need to urinate often, even right after the bladder has been emptied. Symptoms of dehydration can sometimes be confused with dementia in older people, monitoring fluid intake on charts for elderly people with dementia can help to ensure sufficient hydration and avoid the risk of dehydration. Older people are especially prone to dehydration because of age related changes in how water is used in the body. Elderly people with dementia may be at more risk of dehydration due to swallowing difficulties. Water is the best option for hydration, but any fluids count towards the daily requirement.