Research has been done by Silverstein et al in which it was found that biological factors may influence a person’s first positive or negative experience with their first cigarette. For example whether they feel nausea, or choke. Although this does not explain why a person initially picks up a cigarette it does give us an explanation for why some people continue the initiation of smoking. Those with worse experiences due to the biological factors may be less likely to continue to start smoking. Hall et al also suggests that nicotine addiction is likely to involve multiple forms of genes that each have a small effect that interacts with each other and environmental factors.
This suggest that depression must be passed on through genes if there is a high concordance rate between twins which share the same genetic makeup both having depression. However, biological factors such as the amine hypothesis states that if amines such as serotonin and noradrenalin become unbalanced, they can lead to depression. PET scans support this idea as they show that low levels of serotonin are present in people that are depressed. Other supporting evidence is that drugs such as MAOI’s, which work by increasing the available amount of noradrenalin in the brain, were found to be effective in alleviating the symptoms of depression. A problem with this is that it doesn’t state whether it is cause or effect.
Anti depressants such as MAOI’s which increase the available amount of nor adrenaline in the brain, were found to be effective for elevating the symptoms of depression. So when noradrenalin is increased in the brain, symptoms of depression get better, suggests that it is chemicals that are the root cause of depression. This idea is also found in the results of taking reserpine, a drug used to treat high blood pressure. Depression is a unwanted side effect of this drug, as this drug acts by lowering levels of nor adrenaline. So again strongly suggests that low activity noradrenaline, is a factor contributing to the cause of depression.
Methamphetamine, like other drugs, is able to short-circuit the survival system by artificially stimulating pleasure areas in your brain. As this happens, it leads to increase confidence in meth, and less confidence in normal life routines. Usually when this occurs the addict will be more interested in meth related activities, meth related people, and meth related environments. Withdrawals of Meth Use: Fact or Fiction? Much to contrary belief meth users do suffer from withdraws as well as any other drug addict would.
Research support comes from Elkin, who found that when compared to CBT, PIT is just as effective at treating depression. This is a strength because PIT provides an alternative treatment to CBT, that is just as effective. We must therefore be more trusting of the PIT therapy for depression as it provides another treatment for people who struggled with CBT that is just as effective. Meaning that more people can have their symptoms improved, in theory. However, a weakness of Elkins findings is that just because PIT is as effective of CBT, does it make it an effective treatment?
Hydrogenation also extends the shelf life of these fatty acids, and preserves them through better stabilization. “When the hydrogen’s are on opposite sides of the double bond, called the trans configuration, the fatty acid is a trans fatty acid.” (Grosvenor & Smolin, 2006) Trans fatty acids can increase your risk of heart disease. Saturated and trans fats are considered the worst for your health due to the proven increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including stroke, and high cholesterol levels according to the American Heart Association (2010). Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are better for your diet, and contain some of the best fatty acids, Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids. These lipids can actually help reduce your risk of heart disease, and cholesterol related health
Research suggests that creatine improves strength and performance in teenagers who were already in shape and highly-trained for their sport. It is safe, but users should always look at label directions and follow manufacturer's suggestions when considering creatine. Although the supplement can help build muscle, creatine has many negative affects on the human body. Studies have shown that the long term use of creatine is not healthy. It can lead to many different factors such as: chronic heart failure, heart disease, bone density, depression, dialysis, high cholesterol, spinal cord injury, or memory loss.
Answer # 2: As a result of watching this particular video, I learned something new about health psychology. I learned that alcohol can lead to health problems. For moderate drinkers, alcohol does not suppress food intake, and may actually increase appetite. Chronic alcohol consumption appears to have the opposite effect. Alcohol causes euphoria, which depresses appetite, so that heavy drinkers tend to eat poorly and become
This group of drugs includes cocaine, methamphetamine, as well s nicotine. Though amphetamine does have some positive effects, including, a stimulation of cognitive activity and control of impulses, the greater effects are much ore detrimental. Due to is relative simplicity of manufacturing and overwhelming abundance; methamphetamine use is a plague on America. I personally have seen people deteriorate before my eyes due to methamphetamine use. Cocaine is another stimulant that often leads to dependence in users.
Extrinsic influence Extrinsic is doing things for the purpose of external rewards as money, praise from others or awards. This extrinsic for halting from smoking cigarettes could be considered as having a better smile; people would praise you for having clean teeth. If a person desire form obtaining form cigarettes, and they are controlled because of addiction then the effectiveness of the extrinsic motivation will enhance; however, these are bad urges with regard to long term success of smoking because too hard to quit, when stressed is pressuring a person then he or she wants to smoke (Wagner, 1990, pg.