The drug is effective. This shows support for the hypothesis as the reduction in dopamine is also reducing schizophrenic symptoms. Also recreational drugs and cocaine are said to increase dopamine level this leads to schizophrenic symptoms of hallucinations and delusions. If schizophrenics also receive drugs like cocaine the symptoms gets worse. This all suggest a link between dopamine and
This prolong the addiction/ individuals with a gentic vunrebility are more likely to prolong the addiction. those with the A1 variant of the DRD2 gene are more prone to shorter periods of abtinance. another biological explanation of addiction is the disease model. Addictive substances stimulate a reward circuit in the brain. This produces a feeling of pleasure and because it makes you feel good you continue the activity.
Probably one of the most interesting factors contributing to the biological aspect of depression is heredity. Depressive disorders have been found to have a genetic component, especially for bipolar disorder, meaning that a biological vulnerability for depression can be present from birth. Having depression in one’s immediate family does not guarantee diagnosis of depression and people with no family history can become depressed. There is also a biochemical factor caused by abnormalities in the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain (Bernstein et al., 2007). In particular, neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine are found to be at lower levels in people with MDD.
GABA, the hormone responsible for anxiety relief naturally in the human body is enhanced by the BZs. The BZs will also help to reduce the serotonin activity in the brain, which is the neurotransmitter which causes arousal, and reduces anxiety as a result. Benzodiazepines have a number of effects that all lead to the reduction of stress in people without much effort. The other type of drug that could be used to treat stress and anxiety issues are Beta Blockers (BBs). When the body detects stress, the SNS is activated which leads to raised heart rate, which leads to higher blood pressure which can lead to Chronic Heart Disease, heart attack, stroke etc.
Agonists work in enhancing the neurotransmitter by inhibiting reuptake of the chemical. Pharmaceutical or prescription drugs such as antidepressants facilitate in lowering the sensitivity of the presynaptic membrane, inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, for instance, thus the recognition of the chemical in the neurons is not detected and the serotonin levels in the brain increases. The therapeutic effects are a decrease in depressed
Marijuana may cause panic and stress attacks in extreme cases but helps ones gain back loss of appetite, and can dull pain from radiation treatments (GetGoing, 2011). The withdrawal effects of marijuana are minimal but can reverse the features it enhances. Conversely is the use of drugs such as cocaine and heroin. According to GetGoing (2011) using heroin or cocaine, powdered or crack (rock), even one time causes such intense cravings for some individuals that they use it again and again, rapidly becoming addicted. Furthermore, crack is the most highly addictive of all the drugs available because it is smoked and therefore stimulates the brain directly (GetGoing, 2011 p. 2).
Kim et al found evidence of smaller frontal lobes in schizophrenic patients which is reponsible for planning, reasoning, and decision-making. The biochemical explanation put forward the dopamine hypothesis which suggests that high level of dopamine in certain parts of the brain can lead to schizophrenia. The evidence for dopomine hypothesis comes from three main sources. The post mortems on schizophrenics show unusually high level of dopamine, especially in the limbic systems. The second evidence comes from anti-schizophrenic drugs e.g.
Pain killers are intended to relieve pain, cough and diarrhea. People who abuse on pain killers take them to block the brain from receiving pain messages. Their intake is much higher than normal in order for them to get the similar feeling they would to an illegal drug. There are withdrawal symptoms that can cause people to become more dependent on the drug. Usually people who abuse pain killers are people who are facing psychological problems.
The most prominent of these is through the prescription of drugs. Stressful situations are usually associated with feelings of anxiety, and so drugs such as Benzodiazepines (BZ’s) are prescribed as they can reduce anxiety. However, whilst BZ’s are much safer than those originally prescribed in the 1960’s (Barbiturates), and are relatively safe in overdose, BZ’s do have some side-effects. They can produce feelings of tiredness and sedation, and also impaired motor coordination. There is also evidence that suggests BZ’s can cause memory impairment when they are used over a long term
Let’s start off by knowing what the definition of drug addiction is first. Drug Addiction is defined as a chronic, relapsing brain disease that characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences. It is considered a brain disease because they change its structure and how it works. Scientists believe that these changes alter the way the brain works, and may help explain the compulsive and destructive behaviors of addiction. You will never know when a