Discuss biological models of addiction 25 marks One biological model of addiction is genetics. This approach argues that some individuals have a genetic predispositionor vunrebility to addiction. Noble found the A1 variant of the DRD2 gene preent in two thirds of deseaced alcoholics. addictive substances stimulate receptors in the brain which creates a feeling of pleasure. This prolong the addiction/ individuals with a gentic vunrebility are more likely to prolong the addiction.
Probably one of the most interesting factors contributing to the biological aspect of depression is heredity. Depressive disorders have been found to have a genetic component, especially for bipolar disorder, meaning that a biological vulnerability for depression can be present from birth. Having depression in one’s immediate family does not guarantee diagnosis of depression and people with no family history can become depressed. There is also a biochemical factor caused by abnormalities in the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain (Bernstein et al., 2007). In particular, neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine are found to be at lower levels in people with MDD.
What are some of the strengths associated with the Pro side of the issue? What are some of the weaknesses? Strength of the NIMH is the use of statistical information concerning biological and genetic causes of ADHD. The NIMH cites studies that show neurological abnormalities to support the viewpoint that environmental factors do not play a role the development of the disorder. One weakness I see is the use of medications is seen as a long term basis for controlling the symptoms of hyperactive and impulsivity behaviors of ADHD.
Another anti-anxiety drug which is used are beta blockers, could this type of drug be more effective than benzodiazepines? Beta blockers are also used to treat anxiety and work by acting directly on the heart and other parts of the circulatory system. They reduce activation of the cardiovascular
Describe two or more biological explanations of OCD (9 marks) The biological approach works on the assumption that abnormality is caused by dysfunctional biological processes and that it is these factors mean that an illness is more likely to occur in certain people. One explanation for OCD focuses on the role of genetics which argues that people are born with a pre disposition to have OCD. Evidence on genetics and OCD has involved using twin studies and first degree relatives. It has been found that those who have a first degree relative with OCD, such as parent of sibling, are 5 times more likely to have OCD themselves. This suggests that certain genetic factors may lead to abnormal functioning of areas of the brain causing illnesses such as OCD.
GABA, the hormone responsible for anxiety relief naturally in the human body is enhanced by the BZs. The BZs will also help to reduce the serotonin activity in the brain, which is the neurotransmitter which causes arousal, and reduces anxiety as a result. Benzodiazepines have a number of effects that all lead to the reduction of stress in people without much effort. The other type of drug that could be used to treat stress and anxiety issues are Beta Blockers (BBs). When the body detects stress, the SNS is activated which leads to raised heart rate, which leads to higher blood pressure which can lead to Chronic Heart Disease, heart attack, stroke etc.
They receive the drug L-Dopa to increase levels of dopamine. If too much L-Dopa is given to Parkinson patients then it has been shown to trigger schizophrenic tendencies. In addition to this the drug chlorpromazine is given to schizophrenics to reduce symptoms. The drug works by binding to D2 receptors and reduce dopamine. The drug is effective.
The idea that addiction is a behavioral choice and not the result of a brain repeatedly being subjected to addictive substances is inconsistent with what scientists are learning about how the addicted brain functions. If, as Schaler states, anyone can stop or moderate their use anytime they want to, why don’t they? Why are there people who want to quit using and can’t? And if using addictive drugs is just a choice, how would one explain the concept of relapse or addicts in recovery who have to learn how to successfully resist the incessant urge to use again? His claim that anyone can stop or moderate their use anytime they want to is illogical.
Individuals who do not prefer depression medicines as a treatment option, there are alternative treatments for depression exercise and acupuncture. Treating someone with anti-depressants alone may improve depressive symptoms, but will not help one deal with things that worsen or trigger depression. Therapy can make coping with depression easier. Not only can it help improve symptoms, therapy is useful for treating psychological causes of depression and developing coping skills. An effective treatment for depression is Electroconvulsive Therapy.
Some reports indicate some “schizophrenics have difficult births which have starved their brain of oxygen” (Waring, 2012). The advancements of MRI scans have allowed researchers to investigate the brains of schizophrenics. Chau & McKenna (1995) found abnormalities such as; smaller corpus collosum, less grey matter in temporal lobes, enlarged ventricles, and reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex (Waring, 2012). Some agrue these abnormalities are not the cause of schizophrenia but that schizophrenia has caused the abnormalities. The biological argument for the causes of schizophrenia are also said to be reductionist as it only looks at a persons physiology and ignores any environmental