3.1 An explanation of the benefits for babies and young children of a key worker/person system in early years settings. In the early years setting each child has to be given a key worker. This is because the EYFS statutory framework states that in the framework in the early years setting they have to stick by. The benefits of the key workers for babies and young children are when the babies and young children are more independent, you would do this by the young children and babies to being able to depend on adults for reassurance for comfort. This will make the babies and young children feel happy and feel safe and secure they get more confidantes to explore and try new things out.
Outline and Evaluate Bowlby’s Evolutionary Theory of Attachment. (12mark) Attachment can be described using two theories, one being Bowlby’s attachment theory which is based on an evolutionary perspective. The theory suggests that evolution has produced a behaviour that is essential to the survival to allow the passing on of genes. An infant that keeps close to their mother is more likely to survive. The traits that lead to that attachment will be naturally selected.
Face Recognition in Infants: The newborn infants enter the world visually naïve but are possessed with a number of tools and means with which to make sense of the world around them. Developmental psychologists are more concerned about the early stages at which a child begins to differentiate between faces and innate objects. Moreover, faces provide infants with information about the identity, gender, age, and emotional expression of their caregivers who they are likely to spend more time with. Likewise, being able to recognize their caregivers is also crucial for the development of attachment styles they form at an early age which eventually leaves a long-lasting effect on their future relationships. Several experiments have reported that newborn infants, just a few hours from birth, are able to discriminate between individual faces, and will evidently show preference for the mother’s face when she is shown paired with a female stranger’s face.
Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment suggests that children come into theworld pre-programmed to form attachments with others as this will help them tosurvive. His theory consists of five clear factors that were linked to the developmentof attachment from an infant to its primary care giver; usually the mother. Firstly hestates that attachments are “adaptive” which means the child is at an advantageto survive as it ensures safety and food in order to reproduce. Bowlby states thatchildren are born with innate social releasers such as laughing, crying and attractivefacial features including big cheeks and large eyes which provide them with extracare and comfort. It is important for the infant to form a bond with its caregiverwithin a certain period of time, also known as the critical period.
From the moment of conception a child gets its genetic makeup from the parents, thus already beginning their impact on the child. Parents give a child its first view of the world and they often shape many of his or her values and beliefs, while also providing the basic necessities that a child needs to survive. Peers, however, are often said to have more influence on a child’s development than parents. The challenges faced in a social environment, one where children are often either accepted or ridiculed, shape how a person may behave for the rest of their lives. A third concept in influence on child development is the impact of culture and how it supports parental and/or peer influence.
As the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development. Related terms include developmental psychology, referring to development throughout the lifespan, and paediatrics, the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. Developmental change may occur as a result of genetically-controlled processes known as maturation, or as a result of environmental factors and learning, but most commonly involves an interaction between the two. It may also occur as a result of human nature and our ability to learn from our environment.
language and socialisation) Explain the course of development according to these descriptions That is, a theory must account for the transitions from one point in development to another and must identify causal variables affecting transition * Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment. # * Reading Chp 6 Boyd & Bee, (2009) PLAN Initial outline of essay Bowlby’s attachment theory was initially developed and then revdeveoped in ollboration with Mary Ainsworth (1969) using their Ganda study The contribution of attachment theory to the social and emotional development of children is critical in assessing the healthy and secure attachment of children to their mother, first and foremost, then, as the child develops through 54 weeks and 2-3 years old – that they begin to relate positively to key carers that play an integral and familiar role in their life. These relationships play a role and can, if the child has had an unstable home and parental environment during their early development, affect detrimentally their ability to form new bonds as adolecscents and possibly adults. However, a child raised in a stable and emotionally secure environment, will develop secure and
‘Bowlby’s Evolutionary Theory of Attachment Suggest that Babies are Biologically Pre-Programmed to form Attachments with the Primary Caregiver as a Survival Mechanism’. Discuss this statement in relation to research into attachment. Bowlby described attachment as being a “…lasting psychological connectedness between human beings.” Bowlby’s Attachment theory focuses on the ‘connectedness’ between infants and their primary caregivers i.e. their mothers, He states that this connection is an innate process which evolved as a survival mechanism to protect the infants and ensure that genes could be passed on. Bowlby’s attachment theory was heavily influenced by Darwin’s survival of the fittest as well as animal studies such as Lorenz’s geese study.
Unit 022 Outcome 1 AC 2 Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important. In terms of development some aspects follow a definite sequence especially when it comes to physical development. For example a baby needs to know how to lift their head before they sit up,toddlers need to learn to walk before they can run and in terms of communication they will need to recognise words before they can talk. Although these sequences of development are typical in all children,the speed and rate at which they can develop can change in individual children. Some babies may sit unsupported at 7 months but some can take a bit longer.
It is important to recognise the difference so you can identify where children need help or may be at risk of having SEN. Information and sources we receive are only guidelines. These help us to monitor what children can and cant do at certain stages in their lives, it will also help us to plan effectively to ensure they get the attention they need, in the areas in which they find challenging. Maturation is the genetically programmed series of changes leading to maturity. These changes occur in the same sequence in everybody, but there are great individual differences, for example: - size, weight, height are linked to Ossification which helps you develop your fine motor skills. Cephalocaudal development is the head to toe sequence; babies first have to have neck control before they can sit with support, then on to pulling themselves in to the standing position, then crawl and then to walk, they follow the pattern so this happens if they didn’t then they would not be able to do this.