The traits that lead to that attachment will be naturally selected. Bowlby has the idea that attachment has evolved and it is innate as it increases the likelihood of survival and reproduction, he suggests that children are already born with this innate drive and that they were born to perform these behaviours and born to attain attachment. To enhance the survival of their offspring caregiving is also adaptive and we are born to care for our children. He suggests that infants were born with social releasers (for example: crying/smiling) which encourage caregiving. Bowlby also suggests that there is a best time to form an attachment, this is called the sensitive period where infants are most sensitive to development of attachments and Bowlby would suggest that this is when the child is 3-6 months old.
Describe and evaluate Bowlby’s theory of attachment Bowlby’s theory of attachment argues that attachment is adaptive and innate. He believes that infants are all born with an innate need to form attachments because they enable survival. He states that attachment promotes survival in 3 ways; Proximity to an adult provides safety (for example, protection against predators, food and warmth etc. ), it provides a secure base for exploration (and fosters cognitive development and independence) and the internal working model (a schema that gives the infant a basis for future relationships). He also states that infants will form one bond that is more important than all others (Montrophy) and this is linked to the continuity hypothesis.
The child’s nature refers to the influence that genes play on development, while nurture refers to the influence of the environment. Which one has a more substantial impact on the child’s development? We now know that both combine to create the child; that nature affects nurture, and nurture affects nature. However, in what ways are the parents more influential than the peers and how are the peers more influential than the parents? From the moment of conception a child gets its genetic makeup from the parents, thus already beginning their impact on the child.
First, the formulation of Bowlby's theory will be explained. This will be followed by a presentation of research which enabled the discovery of different forms of attachment. Also factors influencing infant's internal working model such as parental sensitivity and association between early attachment, and later development as well as the concept of transmission of attachment will be discussed. Moreover changes to original theory in light of this research will be examined. According to Bowlby (1973) a strong emotional bond between the mother figure and the infant called attachment has the biological origin.
Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment suggests that children come into theworld pre-programmed to form attachments with others as this will help them tosurvive. His theory consists of five clear factors that were linked to the developmentof attachment from an infant to its primary care giver; usually the mother. Firstly hestates that attachments are “adaptive” which means the child is at an advantageto survive as it ensures safety and food in order to reproduce. Bowlby states thatchildren are born with innate social releasers such as laughing, crying and attractivefacial features including big cheeks and large eyes which provide them with extracare and comfort. It is important for the infant to form a bond with its caregiverwithin a certain period of time, also known as the critical period.
Bowlby put forward a theory of attachment based upon the assumption that attachments are formed due to their evolutionary advantages. The theory states that attachments are adaptive and become attached because of the long term benefits such as feeding and protection from a caregiver. It also states that infants have social releasers which are physical and behavioural characteristics that elicit an innate tendency to look after, such as smiling or crying. The attachment is a monotropic attachment to the mother which occurs within the critical period, which is from birth to two and a half years of age. This attachment helps the infant to form an internal working model which is a schema for all future relationships.
Face Recognition in Infants: The newborn infants enter the world visually naïve but are possessed with a number of tools and means with which to make sense of the world around them. Developmental psychologists are more concerned about the early stages at which a child begins to differentiate between faces and innate objects. Moreover, faces provide infants with information about the identity, gender, age, and emotional expression of their caregivers who they are likely to spend more time with. Likewise, being able to recognize their caregivers is also crucial for the development of attachment styles they form at an early age which eventually leaves a long-lasting effect on their future relationships. Several experiments have reported that newborn infants, just a few hours from birth, are able to discriminate between individual faces, and will evidently show preference for the mother’s face when she is shown paired with a female stranger’s face.
Both of these conditions show us that the child forms attachments on the basis of primary care provision and that the strongest attachment will be with the person who provides the most care for the child. Evolutionary theorists believe that the reason for attachment is survival. They say that a child knows that it needs to attach to someone in order to live and survive and that this instinct is instilled in them from birth. The attachment is said to develop within either the Critical Period or Sensitive Period and is something which cannot be learned again. Critical
3.1 An explanation of the benefits for babies and young children of a key worker/person system in early years settings. In the early years setting each child has to be given a key worker. This is because the EYFS statutory framework states that in the framework in the early years setting they have to stick by. The benefits of the key workers for babies and young children are when the babies and young children are more independent, you would do this by the young children and babies to being able to depend on adults for reassurance for comfort. This will make the babies and young children feel happy and feel safe and secure they get more confidantes to explore and try new things out.
A different child, in the same routine, may find it overwhelming and may grow up to avoid large groups, preferring a life path that is more secluded. We cannot determine how each child will react to cultural influences; it is critical that the most influential aspects of a culture be identified in order to give children the best opportunities to thrive. While culture is important to the development of a child, the debate of nature versus nurture has an even longer historical importance. I personally feel that culture and biological influences have equal influence on a child, meaning that nature and nurture go hand in hand. An example of this would be a child who has been adopted and shares the same environment (culture, household) with their sibling, but not the same genetic code.