Discussion Enzymes are used to speed up biochemical reactions that occur within the body. They act as a catalyst for specific substances and therefore reduce activation energy. A catalyst is a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up or altered, and therefore can be used repeatedly. Enzymes are also used to control cell metabolism by regulating the rate of biochemical reactions, this is because the amount of enzyme in a solution determines how fast a reaction can occur. An enzyme consists of complex chemicals that form precise, tertiary and quaternary protein structure consisting of long, linear chains of amino acids linked together with polypeptide bonds, which fold in such a way that they form a
(2 marks) A drug of same size and shape, as that of a substrate, which fits into the active site of an enzyme will act as a competitive inhibitor and the reaction is termed as competitive inhibition. The drug will compete with the substrate molecule for the active site of an enzyme, thus, it will decrease the rate of substrate-enzyme reaction by binding to the active site of enzyme. The rate of competitive inhibition reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of inhibitor present. 2. Glucose travels in the plasma or liquid part of your blood but cholesterol (triglycerides) travel bound to protein carriers in the blood.
Structure similar to substrate | Harmful noncompetitive enzyme inhibitor | C. Tie up metals | Feedback enzyme inhibition | B. Binds to allosteric site | Ribozyme | D. Catalytic RNA molecule | Question 5 Potentially, how many molecules of ATP can be generated by prokaryotes from the complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O? Answers: 38 Question 6 How many molecules of ATP are spent by prokaryotes in the oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid? Answers: 2 Question 7 Although the production of ATP during fermentation is limited, its advantage over respiration is that in fermentation Answers: | The final electron acceptors could be either inorganic or organic molecules | | Glucose is completely oxidized to CO2 and H2O. | | There is not need of an external molecule to serve as a final electron acceptor | | The production of FADH2 and NADH is higher than in respiration | | Glucose is oxidized to ethanol.
1. Most organisms are active in a limited temperature range Identify the role of enzymes in metabolism, describe their chemical composition and use a specific model to describe their specificity on substrates Molecules: Consist of atoms Enzymes: Break the molecule bonds, but need energy to do so – ACTIVATION ENERGY (required to start chemical reaction) 1. The role of enzymes in metabolism 1. Metabolism refers to all the chemical reactions occurring in organisms 2. Enzymes are biological catalysts for all processes going on inside cells.
This can be either permanent or temporary depending on the type of inhibitor. A competitive inhibitor will fight the substrate for the active site, but this is temporary. A noncompetitive inhibitor with attach to a different portion of the enzyme changing the active site permanently. The last two characteristics of enzyme catalyst or steps in the reaction cycle is the release of an end product and the enzymes ability to be recycled to start the process all over. (Wolfe, 2000) Sucrose also known as table sugar breaks down to glucose and fructose naturally by the body.
Hereditary Fructose Intolerance and Mitochondrial Disease Sara James Western Governor's University Hereditary Fructose Intolerance Enzymes in Breakdown of Fructose Enzymes are proteins that carry out chemical reactions. They will bind to a substrate and then end up releasing a product. The enzymes do it by a process of lock and key. The lock is considered the substrate and the enzyme is considered the key. Only the enzyme will fix the substrate because of the active sites on the enzyme.
GRT Task 4 Renee Ray Hereditary Fructose Intolerance Two features that make all enzymes catalysts: Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts. A catalyst speeds up the rate of the reaction. Enzymes and catalysts do not affect the equilibrium constant. Enzymes and chemical catalysts increase the rate of a reaction in forward and reverse directions. Enzymes and catalysts bind their substrates for a brief period of time.
Enzymes are a type of protein which speeds up the chemical reactions which occur within an organism by lowering the activation energy required to start the reaction. 6. Lock and Key- Only a specific substrate is able to fit in a particular enzymes active site as the substrate is believed to be a perfect fit for the active site. Induced Fit- When a substrate binds to an enzyme’s active site, the enzyme temporarily changes shape to accommodate the
Determining Properties of an Enzyme Purpose: Enzymes serve as proteins that influence the rate of a reaction. Enzymes are long chains of amino acids with complex shapes. There a variety of enzymes, each with their own function and job. The active site on an enzyme is specific to a single substrate, which can activate the energy in the enzyme. Without enzymes normal metabolic reactions would be sluggish.