Satyabrat Sukla Biology 10/ Mr. Daniels September 22, 2011 Section 4.1 Questions 1-5 1. How are ATP and ADP related? They relate in the terms that they are both phosphate groups and that they both act upon energy. Adenosine triphosphate transfers every for the cell to process and Adenosine diphosphate is a lower energy molecule that can be converted into ATP with the help of an extra phosphate group. 2.
Third, the substrate becomes activated through the enzyme-substrate complex, allowing the electrons and atoms to rearrange to form the product of the reaction. Fourth, the complex separates, releasing the product and enzyme independent of one another. Only the substrate is modified in the reaction, thus after being released enzymes may perform the same process. Each enzyme is specialized for a particular reaction, therefore many similar as well as different types of enzymes may be necessary for cell metabolism (McMurray, 1977). The four types of macromolecules that make up an organism’s diet are lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Include the reactants and the products. Where does it occur? The role of glycolysis is the process to turn glucose into ATP it does this by investing in the process by giving up an ATP and the glucose and turning it into pyruvic acid. This process happens outside the mitochondria. • What is the role of the citric acid cycle?
Question 1 1 out of 1 points | | | Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones? | | | | | Selected Answer: | catabolism | | | | | * Question 2 1 out of 1 points | | | Sucrose is a disaccharide, composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. The hydrolysis of sucrose by the enzyme sucrase results in | | | | | Selected Answer: | breaking the bond between glucose and fructose and forming new bonds from the atoms of water. | | | | | * Question 3 1 out of 1 points | | | Which of the following types of reactions would decrease the entropy within a cell? | | | | | Selected Answer: | dehydration reactions | | | | | * Question 4 1 out of 1 points | | | Which of the following is true for all exergonic reactions?
Anaerobic respiration is a process which happens inside the cells in when carbohydrates, such as those listed above, are broken down. When glucose is broken down into energy and is released so it can be used by the cells. Anaerobic respiration is when glucose is broken and the products generated from this are energy and either lactic acid or ethanol (alcohol) and CO2 (Anaerobic Respiration, 2011). How does this connect? Taste buds can recognize four basic kinds of tastes sweet, salty, sour, and bitter.
It does not occur at any set time, and, at the same point in time, Neighboring cells may be involved in different stages of cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is an exergonic reaction, which means it produces energy. It is also a catabolic process - it breaks down polymers into smaller, more manageable pieces. The ultimate goal of cellular respiration is to take carbohydrates, disassemble them into glucose molecules, and then use this glucose to produce energy-rich ATP molecules. The general equation for cellular respiration is: one glucose molecule plus six oxygen molecules produces six carbon
Metabolism GRT1 Task 208.5.4-01, 03-05, etc. A1. Role of enzymes in process Enzymes are proteins that will bind to a substrate to help carry out a specific chemical reaction, and the end result of this is a new product. The substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme. This is called the ES complex.
In order for the split to occur it needs energy of two ATP molecules. To be able to produce two molecules of ATP there has to be one molecule of glucose. The three carbon molecules donate high-energy electrons to NAD (NAD is the first step the electrons take from glucose to oxygen) where it is reduced to NADH, this happens because the electrons have transferred their fuel. Glycolysis makes four ATP molecules directly when enzymes transfer phosphate groups from fuel molecules to ADP (adenosine diphosphate ). By the end of the glycolysis the fractured glucose molecules forms two molecules of pyruvic acid, which holds most of the energy of glucose.
Here the three carbon pyruvic acid molecule is processed to produce ATP and carbon Dioxide molecules. This cycle uses ATP to specifically break down the pyruvate into Acetyl co-A. Once this goes through the cycle limited ATP as well as more NADH is produced .This happens in the mitochondria when sufficient oxygen is present to turn the carbon Dioxide. Is the role of the electron transport system? Include the reactants and the products.
They help to increase the rate of chemical reactions. Enzymes are most often proteins. Enzymes are highly specific in terms of the reactions that they catalyze. In other words, they are highly specific to the substrates that they will act upon. In this lab we will investigate how amylase acts on starch, lipase on lipids, and trypsin on protein.